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Falsification of African Consciousness

The cost of racism

Originally posted on Resist racism:

Another way that racism harms white people is by denying them the ability to develop their critical thinking. This is due in part to the constant, regular reinforcement that white is right. White people are raised in an environment in which they are regularly assured of their superiority. Their experts are white, like them. And they often live in segregation, thus denying them the opportunity to be exposed to other viewpoints.

What happens in a culture of white supremacy? White people assume that they are the experts. Even in the absence of any history, education or knowledge.

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Why Black History is Important for Young People

Re-blogged frm Black History Studies

“Education for all British teenagers focuses on an intellectual heritage that begins with the Greco-Roman tradition, on one hand, and the Judaeo-Christian tradition on the other. In addition, mainstream education includes references to the contributions of the Hindus, Buddhists, Arabs and the Chinese to certain aspects of human culture.

 But what about the contributions of Africans and African descended people? Where is any of this reflected in mainstream education?

 For most Black teenagers, the experience in the classroom and lecture hall is one of being present and being excluded at the same time. Nearly all information taught in schools and colleges ignore the black teenager’s cultural heritage. Some old school educationalists even claim that black teenagers (and black people in general) have no cultural heritage whatsoever!

Consequently, the experience in the classroom and the lecture hall, as far as black teenagers are concerned, is one of being indoctrinated with somebody else’s culture. For black teenagers, this poses a difficult question: Should you forget your cultural heritage and fully embrace another heritage or should you resist the indoctrination?

This is a difficult choice that black teenagers have to make. Some will embrace the European heritage and will be rewarded with GCSE and A-level success. The rebellious teenagers will resist for as long as they can. Many will leave the education system with little or nothing to show for it.

 Black History is a subject that can interest black (and non-black) teenagers. It is a subject that enables black teenagers to see and learn about people that are just like themselves. Black history in the broadest sense includes the contributions of black people to development of history and civilisation. It includes the contributions of black people to the development of the arts, technology and the sciences, industry and world trade, and religion and philosophy.

Even if we restricted the scope of black history to the British Isles, black people here have a history stretching well beyond the Empire SS Windrush in 1948. For example, one mainstream TV documentary shown over the last 12 months featured the rediscovery of the burial of an eleventh century African male. Another documentary featured the rediscovery of a burial of an elite fourth century African female in York. Yet another documentary featured a Roman emperor, of North African stock, who led troops in battles against the early people of Scotland, and who himself died in York.

 Even if we restricted our focus from 18th century to pre 1948 London, there are various black personalities and organisations important in political history such as Oludah Equiano, William Cuffay, and Henry Sylvester Williams and the Pan African Movement. In Literature…”;  Read full article on Author’s site

 

Making Black History Month Relevant

With Black History Month (BHM) rapidly approaching, I want to take this opportunity to address: 1.) The purpose and background of BHM  (2. The limited ways in which we typically use this month  3.) How to make BHM more relevant and empowering

Purpose/Background

Carter Godwin Woodson, founder of Black History Month, scholar, author and institution-builder

What we now refer to as Black History Month began as “Negro History Week.” Dr. Carter G. Woodson, a Harvard University graduate and history professor, began this commemoration in 1926. He was frustrated by the absence of scholarship and discussion about Black people’s contributions to America and the world. He hoped that NHW would fill this void.

A common belief among Black people is that whites created Black History Month in February because it is the “shortest and coldest month of the year.” Actually, Woodson  designated the second week of February to honor the birthdays of President Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass, two people he believed were great emancipators of Black people. The first recorded celebration of Black History Month was in February of 1970 by Black students at Kent State University. By 1976, America’s Bicentennial, the government officially “recognized” this change from Negro History Week to Black History Month, however Black people began this tradition before…”;  Read more here

Re-blogged from:  MyTrueSense.org

Article Author:  Agyei Tyehimba

is a former NYC public schoolteacher, co-founder of KAPPA Middle School 215 in the Bronx, NY, and co-author of the Essence Bestselling book, Game Over: The Rise and Transformation of a Harlem Hustler, published in 2007 by Simon & Schuster. Agyei has appeared on C-SpanNY1 News, and most recently on the A&E documentary, The Mayor of Harlem: Alberto ‘Alpo’ Martinez.” Mr. Tyehimba is a professional consultant and public speaker providing political advice and direction for Black college student organizations, community activist groups, and nonprofit organizations. If you are interested in bringing Agyei to speak or provide consultation for your organization, please contact him at truself143@gmail.com.

 

28 Common Racist Attitudes And Behaviors

Re-blogged from:  DemocraticUnderground

“Below is a list of 28 common racist attitudes and behaviors that indicate a detour or wrong turn into white guilt, denial or defensiveness. Each is followed by a statement that is a reality check and consequence for harboring such attitudes.

1. I’m Colorblind.

“People are just people; I don’t see color; we’re all just human.” Or “I don’t think of you as Chinese.” Or “We all bleed red when we’re cut.” Or “Character, not color, is what counts with me.”

REALITY CHECK + CONSEQUENCE:

Statements like these assume that people of color are just like you, white; that they have the same dreams, standards, problems, and peeves that you do. “Colorblindness” negates the cultural values, norms, expectations and life experiences of people of color. Even if an individual white person could ignore a person’s color, society does not. By saying we are not different, that you don’t see the color, you are also saying you don’t see your whiteness. This denies the people of colors’ experience of racism and your experience of privilege.

“I’m colorblind” can also be a defense when afraid to discuss racism, especially if one assumes all conversation about race or color is racist. Speaking of another person’s color or culture is not necessarily racist or offensive. As my friend Rudy says,
I don’t mind that you notice that I’m black.” Color consciousness does not equal racism…”;  Mr Scorpio 

And more:

Blame the Victim.:  “We have advertised everywhere, there just aren’t any qualified people of color  for this job.” Or …Read more  here

Due Process.:  “Lady Justice is color blind.” White parents who tell their children, “The police are here to protect you. If they ever stop you, just be polite and tell the truth.” Then when a black teen is beaten or killed by police, those same parents say, “He must have been doing something wrong, to provoke that kind of police response.”

The Innocent by Association.: “I’m not racist, because… I have Vietnamese friends, or my lover is black or I marched with Dr. King.”

The Penitent.: “I am so sorry for the way whites have treated your people.” Or “I am sorry for the terrible things that white man just said to you.”

BWAME.: “But What About Me. Look how I’ve been hurt, oppressed, exploited…?

Silence.:  We stay silent.

Read the original article here

Its Time to get UNPLUGGED

Re-blogged from MyTrueSense.org

...It doesn’t matter if you wear a cross, star of David, Ankh, Eye of Heru, or medallion of Africa. Whether you wear a tailored suit, traditional African clothing or Timberland boots with jeans and a hoodie. Whether your name is European or African. Whether you worship In a church, mosque, or temple.

Whether you follow Jesus, Buddha, Muhammad, Yahweh, Jehovah, Shiva or Shango. Whether you meditate, pray, chant, or visualize.Whether you are a vegan or carnivore.

You can burn incense, scented candles, get massages or bathe in exotic bath salts. Whether you jog, do yoga, lift weights, bike, hike, or swim. Whether you ski, surf, skate, or skateboard.

You might be straight gay, bisexual, transgender or transsexual. Male, female or androgynous. Perhaps you’re socialist, nationalist, feminist, integrationist, or pan African.  Conservative, liberal or radical. Middle class, working class or homeless. Perhaps you believe in conspiracies, think Tupac and Bruce Lee faked their deaths, believe you were abducted by aliens, were reincarnated, can communicate with animals and the deceased or can move objects without physically touching them…….

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Our religion, sexuality, political ideology, faith system, style………are personal decisions that govern our person spheres. They are all bubbles that we live in, per se.

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But no matter what bubble of belief or behavior we choose to reside in, a minority of people in this world ( helped along by our apathy, ignorance and cooperation) own the wealth, make and enforce the laws, declare wars, define “truth,” beauty, love, what’s legitimate, what you should buy, think, wear, eat, believe and obey. If you’re cool with this scenario, stay in your little bubble of personal interest and may the force be with you. But if you truly want to change things,,we will need to have compassionate hearts, flexible minds, and proactive spirits. We will need to push past rigid dogma, controlling and divisive mythologies, and cult-like thinking.

The revolution has already begun. Your first steps are to THINK FOR YOURSELF, SEEK TRUTH, and GET UNPLUGGED from ideas, people, or philosophies that deceive, manipulate and cause disharmony, destruction and confusion… Open …”;  Agyei Tyehimba

cropped-my-two-cents

Agyei Tyehimba is a former NYC public schoolteacher, co-founder of KAPPA Middle School 215 in the Bronx, NY, and co-author of the Essence Bestselling book, Game Over: The Rise and Transformation of a Harlem Hustler, published in 2007 by Simon & Schuster. Agyei has appeared on C-SpanNY1 News, and most recently on the A&E documentary, The Mayor of Harlem: Alberto ‘Alpo’ Martinez.” Mr. Tyehimba is a professional consultant and public speaker providing political advice and direction for Black college student organizations, community activist groups, and nonprofit organizations. If you are interested in bringing Agyei to speak or provide consultation for your organization, please contact him at truself143@gmail.com.

 

BECAUSE NO LIE CAN LIVE FOREVER

Author:  Moorbey

Re-blogged from:  Moorbey.com

“…Because No Lie Can Live Forever….how long will the government refuse to acknowledge their wrongful incarceration of Leonard Peltier? Almost 40 years of lies spurred on by the FBI and based on their own deceitful and malicious behaviors. WHEN will Leonard Peltier walk out of prison a FREE Man?

Because No Lie Can Live Forever…. how long will… 

Because No Lie Can Live Forever….how long will Institutional Racism be accepted (while denying that it exists)? …

Because No Lie Can Live Forever….how long will the War Mongers continue to use our young ones as pawns to fight in Wars that only succeed to fill the pockets of certain Individuals/Organizations/Other Countries, etc?

Because No Lie Can Live Forever….how long will the Mass Incarceration of People-of-Color continue to drain our communities of their life-blood? It is no lie that a Person-of-Color endures a longer prison sentence for any type of crime than their White Counterparts and it is further known that more Innocent People-of-Color are incarcerated only because of skin color due to prejudice and racism within both State and Federal Judicial Systems. WHEN will actual Justice prevail?

Because No Lie Can Live Forever….how long will

Because No Lie Can Live Forever….how long will the government insist that automated Drones do not target citizens of Countries the USA is attempting to “help” or take over and bring “democracy” to? In the perverted “Game of War” using drones is…

Because No Lie Can Live Forever….how long will Individuals with higher incomes insist that Individuals with lower incomes are just lazy and/or should be happy with whatever job they can find…if they can find a job?

Because No Lie Can Live Forever….how long will the Government Spying Agencies (NSA, FBI, CIA, etc) be allowed to continually violate the constitutional, civil, and human rights of the general populace who they perceive to possibly be “terrorists”, when these same agencies are carrying out their own terrorist behaviors upon the general populace?

Because No Lie Can Live Forever….how long will …

Because No Lie Can Live Forever….how long will the government bankroll Wars for its own devices and the devices of other Countries while the people at home perish from lack of resources? WHEN will we acknowledge that besides obvious war-toy weapons (guns, bombs, biologics, etc), *poverty is a weapon of mass destruction?

Because No Lie Can Live Forever….how long will corporations-as-people be considered more valuable and viable than Humans, Animals, Plants, and the Mother{Earth} Herself?

Because No Lie Can Live Forever….how long will

Because No Lie Can Live Forever….how long will it take before we-the-people stop harming one and other? We harm each other out of jealousy, greed, prejudice, hatred, selfishness, and ignorance. Our diversity is a great strength that should give us a better understanding of our individual and collective selves. WHEN will we realize that Peace within our own eclectic society could become a beacon of Peace for other Countries?

Because No Lie Can Live Forever….how long will it take before even the most greedy and ignorant among us realize that if we use up ALL the resources that Mother{Earth} provides for us….there will be NONE left?

Because No Lie Can Live Forever….how long will the general populace buy into the FEAR orchestrated by various entities which include but are not limited to anyone who uses fear as a part of their personal agenda to intimidate, demean, disrespect and sway others to think or act as they do?

Because No Lie Can Live Forever….how long will we continue to let these lies continue to inform our daily lives? How long will we continue to pass these Legacies of Lies onto our future generations? WHEN will these lies be put to rest once and for all?

Because No Lie Can Live Forever….how long will 

Read full article on author’s site:  Moorbey.com

The Panther Party’s Ten Point Program

Re-blogged from: ReThink Schools

1. We want freedom. We want power to determine the destiny of our Black and oppressed communities.
We believe that Black and oppressed people will not be free until we are able to determine our destinies in our own communities ourselves, by fully controlling all the institutions which exist in our communities.

2. We want full employment for our people.
We believe that the federal government is responsible and obligated to give every person employment or a guaranteed income. We believe that if the American businessmen will not give full employment, then the technology and means of production should be taken from the businessmen and placed in the community so that the people of the community can organize and employ all of its people and give a high standard of living.

3. We want an end to the robbery by the capitalists of our Black and oppressed communities.
We believe that this racist government has robbed us and now we are demanding the overdue debt of forty acres and two mules. Forty acres and two mules were promised 100 years ago as restitution for slave labor and mass murder of Black people. We will accept the payment in currency which will be distributed to our many communities. The American racist has taken part in the slaughter of over fifty million Black people. Therefore, we feel this is a modest demand that we make.

4. We want decent housing, fit for the shelter of human beings.
We believe that if the landlords will not give decent housing to our Black and oppressed communities, then housing and the land should be made into cooperatives so that the people in our communities, with government aid, can build and make decent housing for the people.

5. We want decent education for our people that exposes the true nature of this decadent American society. We want education that teaches us our true history and our role in the present-day society.
We believe in an educational system that will give to our people a knowledge of the self. If you do not have knowledge of yourself and your position in the society and in the world, then you will have little chance to know anything else.

6.  View original article on the ReThinkSchools.org website

Evers, Medgar

See on Scoop.itThey put Afrika on the map

Profile. Medgar Evers (July 2, 1925 – June 12, 1963). Civil Rights Movement activist in Mississippi.

See on zinnedproject.org

Pan-African Congress

See on Scoop.itThey put Afrika on the map

Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere convened the last Pan-African Congress June 17–19, 1974, in Dar es Salaam Commonly known as the Six PAC this was the first congress held in Africa Nyerere conside…

See on renegadeslave.wordpress.com

The Underground Railroad: Faces of Freedom

See on Scoop.itThey put Afrika on the map

Find out about these “faces of freedom” for the Underground Railroad—important former slaves, abolitionists, writers and poets, detectives, and teachers.

See on education.nationalgeographic.com

Christopher Columbus: father of modern-day white supremacy (part 2)

Re-blogged from:  ushypocrisy by: CalebG

**The following article is the second in a two-part series titled Christopher Columbus: father of modern-day white supremacy. To read part one click here

The European reemergence from out the ashes of hundreds of years of bitter religious warfare and anti-Muslim crusades gave rise to new aspirations of global domination and economic supremacy, and nowhere was this clearer than in Christopher Columbus’s first encounter with the Arawak people of the Bahamas. The Arawaks, just as the Africans on the Guinea Coast before them, greeted these pale-skinned foreigners not as enemy invaders, but as guests visiting from a far-away land. They brought Columbus and his men gifts made from gold and offered them whatever food and water was necessary. The good Christian Columbus, rather than seeing these kind and generous acts as signals of a virtuous character, saw them as proof that these were a naïve people worthy of his condescension. To King Ferdinand and Isabella he wrote that the Arawaks were “so naïve and so free with their possessions that no one who has not witnessed them would believe it. When you ask for something they have, they say no. To the contrary, they offer to share with anyone.” [Zinn, Howard. (1980). A Peoples’ History of the United States: 1492-present, Page 4.] Later the same evening he noted in his diary, “They willingly traded everything they owned… They were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features… They would make fine servants…” “They’ll be easier to conquer than I thought they would be.” [Clarke, John Henrik. (1993). Christopher Columbus and the Afrikan Holocaust: slavery and the rise of European capitalism. Page 30] Far from being appreciative of the gifts they’d bore him, his reaction upon receiving them was to “wonder why they’re bringing such small amounts of gold… I wonder where the mines are.” To find out where the mines were, he decided it best to “take some of the natives by force in order that they might learn and might give me information of whatever is in these parts.” Those he’d taken captive were Arawaks he’d noticed were wearing tiny golden earrings. Threatening to cut them with his sword, Columbus gave them an ultimatum: if they did not wish to be mutilated they would immediately lead him to the source of the gold. And so the captives obliged, first leading him to what is now known as Cuba, where only small amounts of gold were discovered, and then to Hispaniola. [Zinn, 1-3] On the island nation of Ayiti, now known as Haiti, Columbus found a large and peaceful population known as the Taino. Of them he wrote Queen Isabella that “with fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.” [Clarke, 67] It was around Christmas time 1492, and Columbus and his crew mates immediately set about erecting a gigantic fortress, which they called Fort Navidad, to serve as a place of storage for any gold obtained from the local mines. Columbus and his crew initially tried to appear as if their goal was simply to set up trade relations with the local peoples. But in an ominous sign of things to come, when some of the Taino people refused to trade away as many of their bows and arrows as Columbus and his men would have liked, two of them “were run through with swords and bled to death.” [Zinn, 4]

an artist's rendition of the horrors Columbus brought upon the Arawak people

an artist’s rendition of the horrors Columbus brought upon the Arawak people

It was January of 1493 when Christopher Columbus, five months after leaving Spain in search of a Western route to Asia, finally journeyed back to Spain. (^) He was not returning to Ferdinand and Isabella empty-handed, however. Sailing across the Atlantic with him and his crew were some of Hispaniola’s natives who they’d captured and forced into slavery. In the absence of any measurable amount of gold to bring back to Isabella and Ferdinand, these slaves were brought for the purpose of enticing the Queen and King and convincing them of the need to finance an even larger expedition to return with Columbus to the islands. Meanwhile a total of 39 of Columbus’s companions from the 1492 voyage had been left behind in Haiti, stationed at Fort Navidad to store and keep watch over any gold they came across on the island.

And so, after months of letter-writing, Columbus was finally once again standing face to face with the King and Queen of Spain, and bearing with him news he was certain would sound delightful to the royal monarchs’ ears (the inaccuracy of it notwithstanding). The way he told it, he and his men had discovered such a large quantity of gold in the mines of just one island that the King and Queen simply could not believe it without seeing it for themselves! (As it turns out, they shouldn’t have believed it.) With a promise to bring back his majesties an almost endless supply of gold in addition to more captured slaves to do “whatever we want”, Isabella and Ferdinand entrusted Columbus with seven new ships, carrying a sizable a crew of more than 1,200 Spaniards to accompany him on his journey back to the island. [Zinn, 4]

Drawings published based on the first-hand testimony of Father Batolome de Las Casas

Drawings published based on the first-hand testimony of Father Batolome de Las Casas

Meanwhile, as Columbus was made his case before the Queen and King, the 39 men he’d left stationed at Fort Navidid were busying causing an immense amount of trouble on their own. Venturing out into the unfamiliar island, they quickly degenerated into a state of barbarity, breaking into villagers’ homes, raping native Taino women, and kidnapping small children who they used as their sex slaves. This obviously didn’t sit too well with the island’s native inhabitants, and soon local villagers attacked Fort Navidad, freeing the women and children who’d been taken captive. Columbus’s men who were responsible for the kidnappings were summarily executed by the Taino so as to prevent their committing further atrocities. But when Columbus returned to the island from Spain in November of 1493 and discovered his men had been killed, all hell broke loose, and the suffering of the natives of Haiti only intensified from then on out. In a violent sweep of rage, Spanish soldiers rounded up men, women and children from all over the island at gun-point and forced them into outdoor pens. Over time these pens, which were guarded around the clock by ferocious canines and vicious soldiers, became so tightly packed and overcrowded that it was impossible for them to freely move around. By the year 1495 thousands of Hispaniola’s natives were forced to work grueling hours of slave labor in the island’s mines in an unavailing search for gold. Another 500 people were placed on board a ship set sail for Spain, but due to the bitter and desolate climate conditions onboard the ship, 200 of them died before they made it to Spain, where they would have been consigned to slave labor for the rest of their lives.

Anyone over 13 years of age on the island of Hispaniola who failed to bring Columbus back the amount of gold he designated had their hands cut off and bled to death.

Anyone over 13 years of age on the island of Hispaniola who failed to bring Columbus back the amount of gold he designated had their hands cut off and bled to death.

Christopher Columbus and the Spaniards who accompanied him were hideously ruthless in the way they dealt with the indigenous people. Absolutely nothing was off-limits when it came to their getting hands on the fabled gold, even if it meant the mutilation of young children. In 1494 it was decreed that all persons fourteen years of age and older must work in the ‘gold’ mines from sun-up to sun-down. A gold-quota was set and every individual had to meet that quota or else suffer the extreme consequences. At the end of every three months if an individual had delivered unto Columbus the required amount of gold, he or she was given a copper token to be worn around their neck. If at the end of this period one was discovered not to be wearing a copper token around their neck, however, both of his or her hands were cut off and they were left to bleed to death. Being that Columbus and his men always set such unrealistically high quotas, many of the enslaved were forced to take their chances and run rather than face decapitation. This too ended abysmally, for once they were discovered they were viciously attacked and torn apart by the ferocious canines. Any captive who showed even the slightest hint of rebellion or resistance to Spanish occupancy either was immediately hung, or worse burned alive. Within just two years, 1495-1497, close to 125,000 people on Haiti had died from either “murder, mutilation, or suicide.” [Zinn, 5]

Natives who should any sort of resistance to Columbus and Spanish occupation were hung, mutilated or castrated.

Natives who showed any sort of resistance to Columbus and Spanish occupation were hung, mutilated or burned alive.

One man bearing witness to many of these most gruesome events was a Catholic Bishop, Father Bartolome de Las Casas, who as a young priest accompanied Columbus on more than a few of his conquests and expeditions. He soon discovered, however, that hearing about Columbus’s journeys while he sat comfortably giving his blessings was a completely different experience from actually witnessing them up close with his own eyes. Over time he would come around to becoming the single most vocal critic against the horrific treatment of the so-called ‘Indians’ by the Spanish explorers. Of the missions that he himself had been a part of, he said they served no other purpose than “to exasperate, ravage, kill, mangle, and destroy.” (*) He watched as Spanish soldiers took it upon themselves to literally “ride on the backs of the Indians as if they were in a hurry.” And, rather than having to walk on their own two feet, soldiers forced slaves to them from one place to another while they lay comfortably in their hammocks. Soldiers “thought nothing of knifing Indians by tens and twenties and of cutting slices off them to test the sharpness of their blades.” Las Casas even told of one such incident in which two adolescent boys, no older than 10-12 years of age, were needlessly stopped by soldiers and subjected to harassment. Each of the boys was carrying a parrot on his arm. Upon seeing this, the Spaniards snatched them away from the boys and, keeping the parrots as their own, beheaded the two young boys. This the soldiers did “for fun”. [Zinn, 6] In his final assessment, Father de Las Casas cited some figures to help demonstrate how, from one island to the next, indigenous populations were nearly if not completely wiped off the face of the earth. In 1494 it was estimated that nearly 1 million aborigines inhabited the island of Hispaniola. By the time Las Casas arrived in 1508 the population had been reduced to a mere 60,000 people; and by 1514 – two decades after Columbus’s arrival – the population had shrunk to just 32,000.

spanish-conquest-1By no means did this unprecedented amount of genocide and destruction end with Columbus. As it would turn out, Columbus was simply the catalyst who kicked down the door for others to follow in his footsteps, men who were well-versed in the tactics of divide-and-conquer…Read original article on ushypocrisy.com

Investigations Force Feds to Revisit Murders of Civil Rights Era – COLORLINES

See on Scoop.itTHE LAW & INJUSTICE

There were many more killings than those of activists. A Louisiana black businessman’s murder is the latest case reporters have reopened.

See on colorlines.com

Boardwalk Empire and it’s Portrayal of Black Leadership

See on Scoop.itCulturally Teaching

  The HBO series “Boardwalk Empire” (a show I watch faithfully) has taken a weird turn in storyline. This season they introduced a new character named Dr. Narcisse (played by Jeffrey Wright). …

See on mytruesense.org

Christopher Columbus: father of modern-day white supremacy (part 1)

Re-blogged from:  http://ushypocrisy.com

The popular mythology that has surrounded Christopher Columbus for the last five centuries, the exaltation of him as “discoverer” of the Americas a.k.a. the ‘New World’, was still being taught as part of elementary school curriculum and touted as historical fact in classrooms all across America as late as the dawn of the dawn of the 21st century, decades after many scholars had begun unmasking this lie. (*) In this version of history, not only was Columbus the first person of importance to step foot on the American continent, but he was also touted as a man of great distinction and honor. It isn’t until students enter the college-level (if they are so fortunate as to be able to attend college) that their history courses begin delving into the truth of Columbus’s alleged “discovery”, or into the truth about the rest of American history for that matter. By the time they’ve reached this point, however, students have been fed so many tales – like those of Columbus’s “great expeditions”, British Pilgrims landing on “Plymouth Rock”, and their subsequent harmonious feast of “Thanksgiving” with the less-cultivated “Indians” – so many times that they can recite them verbatim. By this time most students have already formed their basic opinions and their political ideology has all but hardened into impenetrable stone. Nevertheless, due to persistent and commendable efforts by scholars of African and Native American descent, in addition to some white and Jewish scholars who came to realize the true nature of European colonialism, the last 50-60 years have seen one blow dealt after the next to the deception that is the Columbus myth. As global populations emerged from underneath the desolate cloud of colonialism in the 20th century, so too did the truth. With that truth comes the stark reality that, if Christopher Columbus is to be recognized as the “founder” or “discoverer” of anything of consequence, it’s the unfortunate discovery that political advantages can be obtained by instilling in people a false belief in white superiority.

an artist's highly fictionalized version of Columbus's voyage to the 'New World.'

an artist’s highly fictionalized version of Columbus’s voyage to the ‘New World.’

Columbus had no part in discovering America in any way, shape or form. The Americas were discovered some 250 centuries ago by travelers from eastern Asia who likely crossed on foot across a theorized land bridge.These people relatively quickly populated the American continent from North to South, numbering anywhere from 50-75 million by the time of Columbus’s first encounter with the Arawak people of the Bahamas in 1492. [Zinn, Howard. (1980). A Peoples’ History of the United States: 1492-present. Page 18] In North and South America alike, people “were using irrigation canals, dams, were doing ceramics, weaving baskets, [and] making cloth out of cotton” for themselves. [Zinn, 19] In many Ancient American societies, as in Ancient African societies, “power was shared between the sexes and the European idea of male dominancy and female subordination in all things was conspicuously absent…” [Zinn, 20] This Ancient world, which was closer to being a truly egalitarian society than anything we can imagine today, was often referred to as the “New World” by members of the “Old World”, i.e. those living east of the Atlantic. For five-hundred years it has been taught that Christopher Columbus was the first explorer from the Old World to encounter the New World, but even this is a dubious claim. There are reports of everyone from the Ancient Egyptians to the Ancient Phoenicians and even the Vikings having made been to the New World or at least made contact centuries ahead of Columbus’s expeditions. (**) In fact when he first set sail on a quest for gold, Columbus’s original destination was East Asia, which he believed he’d reach by traveling west and circling the world. Once he’d reached the shores of the Bahamas by way of the Canary Islands, he was certain he’d found a western route to India (thus, the reason he dubbed the islands the “West Indies” and its inhabitants “Indians”). The first time he stepped foot on Cuba he believed he’d come upon the island nation of Japan. [Clarke, John Henrik. (1993). Christopher Columbus and the Afrikan Holocaust: slavery and the rise of European capitalism. Page 31 

Columbus_explaining_his_discovery_to_King_Ferdinand_and_Queen_IsabellaIn order to adequately tell the story of Columbus’s journey, it’s essential that we first take into account the situation Europe was in at the time he set sail on his most famous voyage – a voyage being financed by none other than Spain’s renowned royal monarchs who, not coincidentally, were the most powerful monarchs in all of Europe. The European continent at the end of the 15th century was in many ways a desolate place. It was still emerging out from under the dark cloud of the Middle-Ages and the Crusades, which had seen Europe’s population drastically reduced by nearly 1/3rd. The marriage between the two Catholic monarchs, King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, breathed new life into Spain, which had for the previous 700 years been under the control of the Moors. The Royal couple’s marriage significantly brightened prospects for the future in the minds of many Europeans. For after centuries of Europeans slaughtering each other in the name of religious war between the competing ideologies of Catholicism and Protestantism (today we’d call this religious sectarian violence), Europe began setting its sights elsewhere on the globe. With these ambitions came a new era of European nationalism, nationalism not concerned with any potential havoc it might wreck on other regions of the world. Ferdinand and Isabella desired to accumulate the most gold, prestige and wealth they could obtain, and it was for this purpose that they financed Columbus’s expedition to Asia. In return for discovering and returning the wealth to the Royal House of Spain, Columbus was promised 10% of all the profits gained from the riches he found, governorship of all newfound lands, and he’d officially be knighted “Admiral of the Ocean Sea.” The tireless explorer had made plenty of promises, and for him falling short was simply not an option.

christopher-columbusslavery-clarkeThe voyage popularly known as “Columbus’s first voyage” may not have actually been his first after all. Small bands of Portuguese boats had been sailing up and down the coast of West Africa, which they unsurprisingly called the “Gold Coast”, since at least as early as 1438. Just as Columbus came to the Bahamas in search of the golden treasures of Asia, so too did the first Portuguese explorers wind up on Africa in search of a shorter route to Asia. [Clarke, 60] While it cannot be proved conclusively whether Columbus ever took part in these expeditions, which were in their infancy when Columbus himself was a child, circumstantial evidence exists that seems to suggest that he did. A primary example is an entry in his diary which reads, “As a man and boy, I sailed up and down the Guinea Coast for 23 years.” The only probable reason for him to have been repeatedly sailing back and forth the Coast of Guinea in these formative years was in all likelihood involvement in setting up what would later become the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. [Clarke, 27] And what did these sailors find when they first stepped upon the shores of Africa? Contrary to what’s been repeated and uncritically accepted as fact by some scholars for nearly five centuries, the Europeans did not come upon “savage”, “uncivilized” people who were living in some sort of “primitive” state in the jungles. Far from it, they came upon magnificent civilizations that dwarfed the size of anything found in Europe during the time. As the late highly-esteemed historian John Henrik Clarke put it, “There were, in the African past, rulers who extended kingdoms into empires, great armies that subdued entire nations, generals who advanced the technique of military science, scholars with wisdom and foresight, and priests who told of gods that were kind and strong.” It wasn’t until later, “with the bringing of the African into the New World, every effort was made to destroy his memory of having ever been part of a free and intelligent people.” [Clarke, 82-83] Not only did the people of Africa have their own technologically advanced civilizations, but also religious customs and a belief in a Higher Being that pre-date the development of Judaism, Christianity, Islam and every other major world religion by thousands of years. The justification most often cited by the powers of Europe (and still hinted at by American missionaries today) about spreading “Christian civilization” to “uncivilized” and “godless” nations and peoples are nothing but lies straight from the pits of hell. The only thing advanced about Europeans was that they had developed the gun, and without it they would never have succeeded in conquering the world. With the development of guns came mankind’s power to in effect play God; for with something as simple as pulling a trigger an entire life can be ended.

When the men from Portugal first stepped foot on the West Coast of Africa to what is now the nation of Ghana, they were greeted very warmly by the local population and were an object of immense curiosity. The Ghanaians treated these lost travelers with the utmost respect and dignity, and sought to accommodate them as one would a guest or tourist visiting from a foreign nation. The two peoples apparently became so fond of each other that they eventually established trading relations and the Portuguese were allowed to build several small trading posts along the Guinea Coast. This trading partnership would last for more than four decades. It was also during one of these travels to and from the West Coast of Africa that in either 1441 or 1442 – less than a decade before Columbus was born – several African slaves were brought to the European continent. King Afonso V of Portugal, upon seeing these foreign slaves as they arrived at his Court, mistook them to be visiting royalty from far-away kingdoms because of the clothes they wore and the gifts they bore him, all of it of exceptionally high quality. [Clarke, 27] Indeed, these were not slaves in the modern sense of the word. Europeans however, whose minds couldn’t even begin to grasp the different traditions and customs of Africa, would later use this practice as a means of justifying their own enslavement of Africans.

A realistic artistic depiction of an ancient Asante King in what is now Ghana. painted by  Alfred Smith.

A realistic artistic depiction of an ancient Asante King in what is now Ghana. painted by Alfred Smith.

These first Africans brought to Europe by Portuguese traders were in fact prisoners-of-war who’d been taken captive after being in on the losing side of a battle between warring African families, nations or tribes. This practice was a remnant of the commonly-practiced slavery of the Ancient World, a form of involuntary servitude which, as terrible as it was, bore little resemblance to the slavery emerging with the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Slavery in the ancient pre-Columbus world, while by no means ideal or necessarily even tolerable, nevertheless existed at some point in every single region of the globe; in Europe, in Asia, and even the Americas. It was akin to what we now know as “indentured servitude” and was not determined by the amount of melanin in one’s skin. In the system as it was practiced in African cultures in particular, “the slave was usually a loser in a local war. He was not enslaved separately from his family and no slave was sent outside of Africa. Some slaves with talent rose to be kings in the very house in which they had been slaves.” [Clarke, 78] If one tribe or family was on the losing side of a conflict, they were taken captive and made to work for a designated period of time, and when that time was up they were free to return home. In contrast to the European-American system of slavery that followed, one was not born into slavery, nor was he a slave for life, nor was all of his descendants predetermined to be slaves. Most importantly, slavery did not exist on account of one race of people being recognized as inferior or subservient to another race. Without the designation of racial castes the extreme dehumanizing aspect was not altogether present. [Clarke, 51] Neither was there the incessant cracking of the slave-master’s whip, the unspoken rape of the women, the separation of entire families, or the sadistic acts of mutilation and torture of the European trade that are so rarely talked about. Europeans who understood nothing about African culture decided to misrepresent African customs and use them as a tool for propaganda. [Clarke, 97-98] The justification was that “Africans are enslaving other Africans, so why can’t we just enslave them all too?” To this very day there are those who insist that Africans are at least partially responsible for their own enslavement as well as all the other atrocities that have been visited upon their continent. Those who advocate this point of view, however, often brush under the rug the most ruthless tactics Europeans used to force Africans into the slave trade. These tactics were similar to modern-day proxy wars (not coincidentally a tactic often employed by the United States, most recently in Syria), in that the Europeans would pick one side in local conflicts and supply them with arms and ammunition in order so that they would carry out raids on enemy villages, kidnap the inhabitants and trade them off to their arms-suppliers, i.e. the Europeans. This is only part of the story though, because for every tribe that jumped at the chance to capture and trade away their adversaries in exchange for this advanced weaponry, there was another tribe that expressed discomfort at the thought of sending their neighbors off into foreign lands that they knew nothing of. Some altogether refused to take part in it, but many who didn’t wish to take part in this ugly scenario were forced to choose, quite literally, at gun-point. [Clarke, 53] The choice they were given was this: ‘Either you use these weapons to round up and deliver slaves to us, or we’ll just take our guns and ammunition and trade them with the next tribe so that they might use them to capture and enslave you and your family. It’s either them or you!

Emina Castle Fortress

Emina Castle Fortress

This was the atmosphere the Portuguese helped usher in when they returned to the trading posts in 1482 for what Ghanaians assumed was just another one of their many visits. Something was different now, however, and at least one King – Nana Kwamena Ansa – began taking notice of what he felt was a “strange difference” in the attitudes of the Portuguese men. He implied as much when addressing the Portuguese Commander, Diego de Azambuia. On one of their last cordial meetings, Nana Ansa remarked how “a great number [of your crew], richly dressed, are anxious to be allowed to build houses, and to continue to build among us.” This Ansa believed to be an unwise decision, for “the passions that are common to us all men will therefore inevitably bring disputes and it is far preferable that both our nations should continue on the same footing as they have hitherto have done, allowing your ships to come and go as usual; the desire of seeing each other occasionally will preserve peace between us.” [Clark. 45, 60] It wasn’t long after Nana Ansa delivered this warning that the Portuguese began building a huge fortress with the help of the Africans they’d befriended, a fortress to be known asEmina Castle. The Ghanaians did not know that they were being deceived, however, or that these men who professed to be their friends would use this fortress as a warehouse to them and their families in cages, stripping them of everything they knew and loved, before shackling them and loading them onboard a ship bound for the West.

A view from the top of the fortress of Emina Castle in Ghana.

A view from the top of the fortress of Emina Castle in Ghana.

"The Door of No Return" in which millions of Africans passed through before being loaded on board a ship headed westward, never to see their home continent again. Goree Island, Senegal.

“The Door of No Return” in which millions of Africans passed through as they were loaded on board a ship heading westward, never to see their home continent again. Goree Island, Senegal.

Castle Emina, which had a capacity of 1,000 people at a time, would be only the largest of the more than fifty slave posts set up along the the Guinea Coast. From one slave-post alone, located on the tiny island of Goree right off the coast of Senegal, millions of Africans walked through the “Door of No Return” before being loaded onto ships and sent on the nightmarish journey of the ‘Middle Passage.’ (^) Their skins were branded as if they were nothing more than chattel, and the untold number of men, women and children were so tightly packed below the top-deck that it created the most miserably intolerable conditions. The passengers could neither stand up straight nor lie down properly, having less room to move than “a man in his coffin.” Often a captive would have his or her ankle shackled to another captive’s. This was done in order to prevent potential escapes, revolts or suicides. The extreme heat inside the lower decks would for many prove unbearable; the air “reeked of excrement and infected sores.” [Clarke, 79] When upper deck’s door was occasionally opened for a split-second, the light of the sun shining through must have felt to the prisoners as if they were looking up at the earth’s surface from the deepest darkest pits of hell.

Although Portugal was primarily responsible for the very beginnings of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade (^^), the next three centuries would see them followed and superseded by nearly every major European nation that hoped to stake a claim and capitalize off this immensely profitable enterprise. The first slaves were brought from Africa to the Americas by Portuguese and Spanish conquistadors in the early 1500’s. [Gates, Henry Louis. (2011). Life upon These Shores: looking at African American history, 1513-2008. Pages 3-11]. For one hundred years Portugal and Spain enjoyed complete monopoly over the African slave-trading business, but as the 16th century they came to a close they found themselves in an uncomfortably close competition with the Netherlands. Later Denmark and Sweden joined in the business as well, but no nations came anywhere close to rivaling France and Great Britain once they came to dominate the slave trade in the 17th and 18thcenturies. And so, after centuries of ravaging, pillaging and raping the entire continent of Africa from the west coast to the east, north coast to the south, Europe came to view Africa as essentially little more than a breeding grounds for slaves, slaves who could be easily exploited and subjugated for Europe’s own financial gain while feeling no remorse at all. What had begun as a singular country’s enterprise had grown into an entire continent’s entire means of obtaining wealth. A viewpoint was born and nurtured over time out of the need to justify these actions, and soon it would become accepted as an undisputed fact. “This is just the way things are and were always meant to be,” people would tell themselves; with Europe the world’s dominant master and Africa its subservient slave. This false reality was propagated and expanded upon until it became for many an undisputed fact. From then on history books would only speak of Africa and its people as if their history had begun only begun with slavery. In reality, the Trans-Atlantic slave trade marked the turning point when Africa’s long history of technological progress, advancements, and place of pre-eminence in the world came to an abrupt halt, submerged in a state of despondency that it’s only recently begun recovering from.

A British blueprint of a slave ship, demonstrating how they were to pack as many Africans as possible into a ship for the nightmare known as the 'Middle Passage'.

A British blueprint of a slave ship, demonstrating how they were to pack as many Africans as possible into the ship’s lower decks for the nightmare journey known as the ‘Middle Passage’.

Just how many Africans lost their lives as a result of the slave trade (and later, in Europe’s “scramble for Africa” in the 20th century) is a number too large to ever realistically calculate. The figure most often cited by historians is likely far too conservative an estimate. (*^)  20thcentury writer John Weatherwax wrote in a short book published in 1963 titled The Man Who Stole a Continent that, of the more than 20 million Africans who were sold into bondage, there were “ten million [sent] to the Eastern Hemisphere and ten million to the Western Hemisphere.” In addition to those millions, some 80 million others died, many in the slave raids on their villages in which “the very young and the very old and the very sick were killed.” Others died “from exposure, disease and grief during shipment abroad, and some by suicide at the water’s edge or in transit.” [Weatherwax, page 3. Also quoted on Clarke, p. 48]

Words cannot express Read original on Author’s site 

 

RAISING JEDI KNIGHTS: RE-THINKING THE GOALS AND METHODS OF CHILD EDUCATION

Re-blogged from:  My True Sense
by Agyei Tyehimba

Wouldn’t it be interesting if we approached parenting in the same manner as preparing a Jedi Knight? This would require us to shift our focus from merely protecting, feeding, clothing, and teaching basic lessons, to preparing our children with the specific SKILLS, CHARACTER TRAITS, and ATTITUDES they would need to function effectively as adults and to defend and advance our communities long after we’re gone.

Notwithstanding white supremacy, the reason why so many (not ALL of them) of our young people find themselves lost, confused, and dysfunctional in the world is because we as their parents are not properly preparing them; frankly speaking, they are ill-equipped, and this reality sadly shows through the consistently poor decisions they make, their immaturity, their lack of initiative and motivation, and their inability to generally deal with life successfully. And this reality will continue until we become proactive in our parenting and creative in our approach to education. Essentially, such thinking would completely transform education as we know it, and result in the training of balanced and well-rounded young people, leaders and problem-solvers.

Is there a precedent for this? In most ancient cultures, children had to undergo rites of

Masai girls undergoing their Rites of Passage in Kenya.

initiation in which they were not considered an adult until they received certain training, passed several tests and demonstrated proficiency in the skills and qualities their village needed for survival and development. For instance, an initiate would learn how to hunt, build shelter, skin an animal for clothing, fight, and a number of other things. Wouldn’t it be interesting if our homes, schools and spiritual centers approached parenting in this way? We would identify the skills and qualities our children and need in the “real” world, create lessons and projects to impart such knowledge and skills, then test them to determine if they are adequately prepared. Some of these tests would be traditional written tests. Most trials would involve actually having to do something, avoid something, go without something, create something, withstand something, and so on. In short, this transformed educational process would be both abstract and functional . Wouldn’t preparation like this help to ensure that they grow into powerful and competent adults? Wouldn’t students and children be more willing to learn with such engaging and relevant activities?

In the epic Movie series “Star Wars,” the ancient rites of passage custom is captured

Master Jedi Knight Yoda training an apprehensive Luke Skywalker in Star Wars.

through the training of “Jedi Knights,” warrior monks sworn to protect the galaxy and promote peace and cooperation. Initiates undergo a series of lessons and training, which conclude with a series of trials they must overcome. These trials cover 5 areas including the Trial of Skill, the Trial of Courage, the Trial of the Flesh, the Trial of Spirit, and the Trial of Insight or Knowledge.

Living as we do in contemporary times with a specific cultural, political and economic context, our training program would need some tweaking to be relevant. Perhaps such skills and qualities would include:

  • Washing dishes
  • Cleaning the home effectively
  • Cooking well-balanced, delicious and nutritious meals
  • Creating a business
  • Self-Defense (including martial arts and use of weapons)
  • Performing CPR
  • Swimming
  • Reading and writing… Read full article on author’s site

Pan-Africanism

See on Scoop.itCulturally Teaching

Pan-Africanism is generally taken to mean that set of political ideas asserting that Africa is a single entity which must unite All the peoples of the continent are fundamentally similar They all b…

See on renegadeslave.wordpress.com

Honoring Huey Newton and Young Panthers February 17, 1942 August 22, 1989

See on Scoop.itCulturally Teaching

Our mission is to unite every black family world wide ,We seek to foster a more unified and stronger black community in which our community is included and valued, by sharing ideas based on the challenges we .

See on www.reunionblackfamily.com

Seeing RED!

Re-blogged from: ThoughtLeader

AUTHOR: Gillian Schutte
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“What is the Red October movement hoping to achieve through its hate-based hodgepodge discourse that is a bizarre combination of radical left communist speak and backward racist doctrine, peppered with obtuse analysis and expedient misinterpretation of social statistics. No really — what do they see at the end of this tunnel vision? Do they think that if they send out enough verbal hate missiles the black population will simply disappear into thin air and they can get on with running the country along with workable roads, clean hospitals and job reservations for whites only?

The recipient of their vitriol is the black South African population, the members of which, it seems, are stealing all the jobs, torturing and murdering up to 17 white people a month and raping whites by the minute (and God knows they are not used to being raped by ethnics — as Steve Hofmeyr was quick to point out). Not only this, they (the blacks) simply cannot run a country and as a result all the hospitals are “filthy”, all the roads are up to shit, the entire country is falling to pieces and this is apparently, solely because white people are no longer in power.

But the discursive cherry on the top is the fact that genocide is being perpetrated against the white population in South Africa — barring the libtards, the communists, and shameless black-loving whites (like me) … because we are, according to this bunch — actively encouraging this genocide.

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**for TRANSLATION see END OF POST 2013/10/FB1e.jpg

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**for TRANSLATION see END OF POST 2013/10/FB1e.jpg

But as Facebook friend Alcide Herveaux points out: “The genocide story is ridiculous. 1.2% of the murders happening in SA annually are white according to 2009 Medical Research council stats. Whites make up almost 9% of population. According to Sunette’s stats of 17 murders per month it is around 200 white murdered per year. The rest of the 15 000 are other races.”

When asked about their claim that white Afrikaners are undergoing level six genocide in South Africa, Sunette Bridges is quick to say that is not about the numbers of people being killed — genocide takes on all forms of oppression, which lead to final genocide. This includes it seems “giving jobs to black people” and “renaming the cities and towns after African indigenous names”. Getting rid of the names of apartheid oppressors is genocide? Really? This document cites the South African government as being active in the encouragement of the genocide of white farmers in South Africa.

it does not seem to matter to them that we are all sympathetic to murder of any kind but that we cannot support the fabrication of facts and figures to present one group as being the victims of a genocide, which cannot be proved to actually exist.

Apparently as Bridges told radio presenter Rowena Baird in an interview on SAfm, it is also about the president once singing Umshini Wami — to which Bridges has liberally added the words — “rape the dogs”. When it was pointed out to her by Baird that we would clearly hear the word izinja in the song if it were indeed there, Bridges raised her voice to an imperious attack that implied that Baird, a mere black, had no right to question her truth. Her tone was indeed, a metaphorical sjambok and Baird had to grit her teeth and get through the tense interview without losing it — kudos to her for such fortitude.

You can listen to the podcast here.

After the radio interview this commentary was to be found on Bridges Facebook site in relation to Baird.

**for TRANSLATION see END OF POST 2013/10/FB5.jpg

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**for TRANSLATION see END OF POST 2013/10/FB5.jpg

Then came the Aljazeera show about Red October, which I was invited to participate in. I turned it down based on my understanding that it is useless to argue against their irrational racism — I prefer to write at them than go blue in the face on a public podium about it. Besides which I think it is black people to whom they must answer, not fight with me about what sort of white I am.

In the show both Dan Roodt and Bridges were strident and confident that the pearls of swine wisdom that fell from their lips was the God’s honest truth. The rest of us were “pathetic libtards” as some tweeted during the show. But this comes as no surprise as according to them some of us are even “black-cock-loving social terrorist morons” among other delightful multi-epithets.

During the show Roodt and Bridges claimed they are “human-rights activists” and it was implied — after the show on social media — that we “the communists”, are actively working to rob them of their rights to cultural expression. More likely though is that we are actively working to reflect back to them their sense of entitlement at their so-called God-given right to be white, arrogant, superior, hateful and sanctimonious. Why? Because some of us do in fact respect and celebrate diversity and will not stand idly by while the right wing create a propaganda machinery of prejudice and anti-black hate mongering while also attributing this malice to all whites.

(I do have to add though, that at least with this lot we know what we are dealing with and they do not have the arrogant temerity to say dubious things like “I agree with the content but will punish her for tone”. Get over yourselves. If you agreed with the content you would not inadvertently feed right-wing supremacy by fighting about tone.)

**Translation exists in image itself

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**Translation exists in image itself

Anyway, moving on from liberal hypocrisy back to white supremacy …

I asked the question in my video contribution on the Aljazeera The Stream show (click here to see the show) what the systemic machinery is that the right-wing discourse seeks to create or feed into with their homily of fear and the demonisation of blackness. Though I have written about this before it became very clear to me while listening to their ludicrously constructed arguments, that what they seek to do first and foremost is discredit and demonise black South Africans — but mostly black South African men. It is black South African men who they perceive as the biggest threat to their wealth, privilege and status quo. Thus everything they put out, from xenophobia to crime, to baby rape, to corrective rape, to women abuse, to corruption, is placed squarely at the feet of black men. They spend a lot of their time and resources feeding this myth through curating stories of black male crime and corruption — totally overlooking white crime of course. This is the war of patriarchs. It is the discursive space in which the white Afrikaans patriarchs of the right wing pit themselves against those whom they perceive as the next wave of patriarchal power players.

The terms in which they speak of “the blacks” are disgusting and dehumanising. The right wing will “plagiarise” the language of many ideologies and appropriate anyone else’s struggle vocabulary, as long as it suits their discourse of demonising the black SA male. They will use African foreigner’s concerns about xenophobia and black lesbian narratives about corrective rape (without their consent) to push their own white anti-black male propaganda. See video in this article.

They even refer to our government as “a communist government and the ANC a far left-wing terrorist group”. And President Zuma is referred to as a “Kaffer Dog” in one of the screen shots that has been doing the rounds this week.

Besides being really obtuse and even infantile, this is pure hate speech and defamation. But where is the outrage? Besides a handful of mostly Afrikaans protestors the white middle class has been particularly silent over this furore.

**Translation exists in image itself

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**Translation exists in image itself

We know though that largely the white middle class and their gatekeepers choose to get outraged over things that insult them directly, like utterances made by Zuma about how whites “treat dogs better than their gardeners”, or the banning of The Spear — yet they remain silent when movements that host up to 40 000 white followers insult the entire black population with heinous public invectives. What’s up with that? Is this elitism, hypocrisy or just plain indifference? One would imagine that it is important to take on the wave of hate speech that has hit our public spaces and that some have said “reeks of possible treason and defames an entire nation of people”, based on their skin tone.

There are of course white people who care enough to make a stand and some Afrikaans anti-racist activists have been actively lobbying against the Red October campaign and infiltrating right-wing sites with satire, parody and mockery to destabilise the ongoing narrative. One such group is Suid Afrikaners op wie ons Trots is en vir wie ons Skaam kry, the initiator of which, Hendrik Potgeiter, has been recording hate speech found on the sites of Bridges, Hofmeyr and Roodt.

Here is a link to an album that has screen grabs of the most heinous examples of the hate speech that permeates our public spaces right now. (You will need to register to see pics in full size.)

You can follow their campaign on Facebook here.

At the end of the day though it is black people who these white supremacists are attacking and attempting to dehumanise with their discourse of hate — and it is black people to who they must answer. There are rumours afoot of a group of black activists beginning a movement called The People vs Red October, in which they plan to start a class action suit against the Red October group for defamation of the entire black South African population. They also plan to call on the government to take this hate speech seriously and begin to find ways to deal with it through the judicial system.

Perhaps it is also time for the right wing to reflect on the manner in which they are being manipulated by the leaders of Red October into becoming their own worst enemies as they buy into the construct of an imaginary genocide and declare a hate-filled discursive war against the entire black population.

And perhaps it is also time for many more white South Africans to also openly and publicly join the call to stop racism.”; view original post on Thoughtleader

** TRANSLATION of 2013/10/FB1e.jpg: Nou mak dit als sin” – Now it all makes sense.  “Maak my siek!!!!!!!!!” – Makes me sick!!!!!!!!! “Vieslik. Wens ek kon op haar kots.” – Disgusting.  Wish I could throw up on her.  “Shame, so ‘n pragtige paartjie, so fotogenies, so rasig,somooi want mens mag mos nou nie meer ‘n rassis wees, lekker man lekker” – Shame, such a beautiful couple, so photogenic, so ‘racial’, so pretty because we’re not allowed to be racist anymore, nice man nice. “lol”lol  “ugh”ugh (meaning ‘yuck’/not good/disgusting).

** TRANSLATION of 2013/10/FB5.jpg:  Sy lyk soos Malemmer se sussie” - she looks like Malema’s (referring to Julius Malema)  sister.  “Dis mos kamstig waar ons vandaan kom. lmga”Thats apparently where we come from. Laughing my ass off.  “Nee Carlo dis mos ‘n subspesie soos Buks gese het” – No Carlos thats a sub-specie like Buks said.  “Is dit ‘n man of ‘n vrou wonder maar net” -  Is it a man or a woman. Just wondering.  “bccsa@nabsa dit is die organisasie waaran ‘n mens skryf om ‘n klagte te le teen die meid se rassisme maar ek glo nie hulle verstaan baie Afrikaans nie alhoewel hulle elke klagte na die saBC aanstuur” – bccsa@nabsa.co.za thats the organisation one writes to in order to lay a charge against the maid’s racism but I dont think they understand Afrikaans.   woze Rowena..die medem soek bietjie koffie! En jy maak dit ordentlik of ek wetter vir jou terug katnong toe!  (Dis al wat Rowena vir goed is!  Moet dit nooit vergeet nie!” – Woza (mocking black people) Rowena… the madam (“Madam” Apartheid/racist slur meaning ‘your white boss’ refers to female) wants coffee! And you better make it a decent cup or I swear I’ll send you back to Katnong!  (thats all Rowena is good for! Don’t ever forget that!!).

A comprehensive guide to white privilege in South Africa

Re-blogged from ThoughtLeader

AUTHOR:  Gillian Schutte

“After spending two hours on Aubrey Masango’s Radio 702 show Talk@9 this week, fielding questions and accusations around my views on racism and attempting to explain white privilege to white callers, I decided to write an extensive guide to recognising white privilege, borrowing from this anonymous Thought Catalog document, which extrapolates from Richard Dyer’s work on white privilege, and reworking it into the South African context…

1. White privilege, like whiteness itself, is almost indefinable to white people. There are few words to describe the invisible. However, white privilege is only invisible to white people and to those people of colour/black people who benefit and buy into white privilege.

2. Many whites in South Africa are generally unwilling to engage in the topic of racism – most crying out that we “must move beyond race’ and that they “do not see colour”. This is the new phenomenon of “colourblind racism” that denies and ignores the fact that for people of colour/black people, race still matters because they still experience it. This is because colourblind white people still practice racism.

They will make blanket statements like “we don’t have slavery anymore” or “there’s a black president now” or, even worse, “all of that stuff happened so long ago.” But that’s just it – it didn’t happen all that long ago, actually, and it is still happening. Cultural amnesia.

3. These white folk will make statements such as “we don’t have apartheid anymore” or “there’s a black president now” and “all of that stuff happened so long ago and now there is BEE which has made us the victims of black racism or black supremacy”. But 20 years is not that long ago and it will take decades for the pain and destruction of our history to subside.

4. Because of the transitional system of reconciliation, which seemed only to benefit white folk – coupled with the implementation of a business-biased macroeconomic policy – whites have continued to benefit hugely from the system. Economic studies have shown that many whites have in fact grown richer in the past 20 years – while the majority of blacks and smaller pockets of whites and minority groups have just grown poorer.

5. Yes, there is a burgeoning black middle class and many white people will often use this to point out that blacks are taking over and “stealing” their opportunities. This sense of ownership over opportunities is a sure sign of white privilege.

6. White privilege means not recognising that there is no such thing as Black Supremacy as black folk have not occupied and oppressed the world under a dominant ideology of Blackness.

7. There were also no “benefits” to black people under the colonial and apartheid rule, though some whites will argue that whites “brought civilisation to Africa for the blacks”. They did not. They built “civilisation” on the backs of black slavery, for themselves, and were just recently forced to share the spoils of their exploitative history with the indigenous people of this land.

8. This is because black people fought a long and hard struggle to overturn a system from which they received no benefits. White privilege means you do not make the connection between the struggle and a system of historically racialised oppression.

9. Whenever BEE comes up as a way to create opportunities for the previously disadvantaged, a white person is sure to say, “Race shouldn’t matter as much as merit. I don’t think people should be judged on the colour of their skin. Everyone should be judged regardless of their colour.” So why then do white people continue to judge black people according to their skin colour? Why does critique of blackness by the white regime always centre on their morphology, their blackness, ‘their culture‘, ‘their penis‘, ‘their bad use of English‘ among other things? This message is implicit and sometimes explicit in white critique of blackness, whether in news reportage, art, satire, cartoons or columns.

10. The default here is that white people have more merit and capability and are therefore more deserving of opportunities.

11. White privilege is accusing people of drawing the race card when whites are critiqued for being racist and then saying skin colour has got nothing to do with it.

12. As per Thought Catalog, “It is true race isn’t theoretically about skin colour,” race is “a systemic, governmental, juridical set of processes” rooted firmly in an exploitative history that have embedded “racial inequalities”. Race is a set of laws that are entrenched to favour whiteness and that most often vicitimise black folk.

13. Race is the law that becomes apartheid and is then replaced by neo-colonialism. As the poster on Thought Catalog points out, race is the hysterical “stereotype that if a black family moves into a neighbourhood”, property values plummet and noise levels go up, as we often see locally, when too many black kids move into a private or public school it soon sees whites leaving the school. Race is shooting 44 striking black men dead because black working class bodies still have very little value in a white dominated system and many white people will think and say that they deserved it. Race is the common white assumption that all black people are lazy even though between 4am and 7am, the streets are filled with black folk making their way to badly paid jobs in white areas because they work hard to survive and feed and clothe their families.

14.

White privilege is reflected the second a person asks why we are still talking about race.

15. These people act offended, angry and often hyper-aggressive if another person calls out and probes their white privilege. As pointed out on Thought Catalog,they assert vociferously that questioning their whiteness is “reverse discrimination”. They accuse white people who interrogate whiteness of being mad and ‘other’ them in dehumanising terms.

16. White privilege is accusing a black person who critiques whiteness of being racist.

17. White privilege is asking your badly paid maid to unpack your daily clothes-buying splurges in which you spend more in one day than you pay her for the month.

18. White privilege is asserting on a public platform that a white woman learning to Twerk is some sort of nation building exercise.

19. There are 56-million people in South Africa. Half of those people live below the breadline – the majority of poor people are black. This means they are trapped in a system that favours whiteness and white business at the expense of the poor. Many white people will blame this entirely on the government and while government must be critiqued for failing to adequately change the system and deliver to the poor, white people refuse to see the role of white greed and corporate power in this systemically skewed and racialised economy.

20. White privilege is investing in red rhino horns and demonising impoverished black poachers while never once considering marching against hunger or pointing their fingers at those at the top of the value chain in poaching, which is, sometimes, a white game farm owner.

21.

“I don’t see race” or “we should all just look past race” are two general statements that can only be said by a person for whom race is not a daily struggle.

22. White privilege is entrenched entitlement because it is the authority to continuously demand presence of whiteness in all transformation processes and using black representation to further their “causes” only when it suits them. If white people are not in charge of transformation processes, which has become a white industry, they cry racism.

23. If black organisations spring up to take charge of their own representation and transformation white people will use sympathetic media to make a huge hullaballoo about the exclusion of whiteness and label it racism instead of seeing it as self-determination. This has ensured that the means-of-production has mostly remained in the hands of white business and has created another industry from which whites can benefit – the constant training of black people.

24. White privilege is being able to endlessly exploit black body for financial gains and pat themselves on their backs for doing “good” and “beneficial” work.

25. White privilege is the groundless fear that affirmative action programs are going to open the way for “the blacks to take over”, or more specifically to take “my position” at university or in the workplace. As the poster on Thought Catalog points out, white privilege is the assumption that the position is yours by default of being white.

26. In South Africa black people have also often been overlooked for coloured or Indian people for leadership positions in institutions of learning. This is because white people perceive minorities as less threatening and have more inherent trust in those who are not “fully black”. It is a deeply entrenched prejudice towards blackness that has been cultivated and passed down from generation to generation over the past four centuries.

27. White privilege is not noticing that in a country that is majority black and has a black government, the amount of black teachers and lecturers in schools, colleges and universities is not representative of the country’s demographics. Neither is the number of black directors of NGOs in civil society, or owners of film companies and media outlets. The corporate world remains largely untransformed too.

28. White privilege is blaming this on perceived black incompetence rather that seeing how the system is designed to provide opportunities for white people, then Indian and coloured people, and lastly black people, excluding the small black elite and elements of burgeoning black middle class. This is the racialised hierarchy of privilege entrenched in the apartheid system and still in place today. White privilege is accepting this status quo to preserve white benefit and ignoring the negative impact it has on the next generation.

29. White privilege is also blaming the poor for their poverty instead of looking at systemic issues that create poverty.

30. White privilege means not constantly having your intelligence or integrity questioned just because you are black. It means not having to work that much harder just to safeguard yourself from deleterious critique when you achieve prominence. It means never having to second-guess yourself about your competence or being sideswiped by disparaging comments by white people who are shaken by your success. It means not automatically being suspected of being open to corruption. It means not being racially profiled as the rapist, the tsotsi, the hijacker and the monster in the shadows, simply because you are black and male. It means that if you are raped you are more likely to see justice.

31. Whiteness is invisible to white people.

A white person doesn’t think of themselves as white. We are just people.

White people very quickly revert to being white when they need to differentiate themselves from perceived “bad behaviours” of “these people” though.

32. As the Thought Catalog poster points out, when we talk about white privilege, we’re not only talking about being wealthy. Wealth is about class and we all know there is a small elite class of black and minority groups in South Africa (onto whom many whites project all elements of corruption and unfair power acquisition as they somehow think blacks do not deserve to be rich). What we are talking about a set of automatic but invisible advantages, like never being told that we speak well.

No one has ever told me that I have good diction or that I speak well because I’m white.

It means never having someone walk towards you with a face-cracking smile that seeks to prove that this white person is okay with black folk and is inwardly congratulating herself for her magnanimous and non-racial attitudes. It means never being spoken to in broken stilted English in a fake African accent.

33. White privilege is knowing that the stuff you are taught at schools and universities is largely centred on your culture and value system.

34. White privilege is appropriating aspects of black culture in carnivalesque situations such as Rag or pantomime or as some kind of fun celebration but then returning to whiteness with no inkling of the experience of living black.

35. White privilege is claiming you are “African” and into “Ubuntu” but doing and saying nothing about the inequalities you see around you, thus maintaining your white privilege while assuming commonality and brotherhood with those exploited by the system of which you are a beneficiary.

36. It means co-opting and appropriating black words to push your own business while not fully understanding or practicing the meaning of the indigenous knowledge that you colonise with little reflection on the privileged act of stealing from black awareness.

37. White privilege is thinking it is normal to say you are not racist because you have no problem with “these people”.

38.

Not all white people are racist, but all white people have white privilege.

This is so even in a country that is African – because we belong to and are privileged by a “white regime” that is global and not just a local neo-colonial phenomenon.

I know I have white privilege, and that definitely impacts how I relate to the world and it shapes the kinds of relationships I cultivate … When you understand your own white privilege, you’ll be better equipped to see and understand systemic discrimination and inequality.

39. The first step to overcoming racism is recognising you have white privilege. You cannot deconstruct a social construct if you do not recognise how you have benefitted from it as a white person. While I have never really been economically privileged, with a single-mother household for most of my childhood, I know I have white privilege and that definitely effects how I relate to society and shapes how I choose to live in the world.

When you are cognisant of your own white privilege, you are better equipped to “see and understand systemic discrimination and inequality” and begin to deconstruct it from within. It is hard to imagine being anti-racist without being anti-imperialst and anti-neoliberal as these are the very systems that perpetuate inequality and racism globally.”

40. I am sure there are many more examples of white privilege and I invite readers to please add to this list by sending me your examples of white privilege….”; Gillian Schutte at ThoughtLeader

THE POWER OF NAMING by Max Dashu

STEREOTYPING entire peoples as mad, uncontrollable threats: “Wild Indians,” “Yellow Hordes” or “the Yellow Peril.” As inferior nonhumans: “primitives,” “savages,” “gooks,” “niggers” — this last term used not only against African-Americans, but also by 18th-century English colonizers of Egypt and India. Even the word “natives,” which originally meant simply the people born in a country and by extension the aboriginal inhabitants, took on heavy racist coloration as an inferior Other.

POLARIZATION: “Scientific thought” vs. “primitive belief”; “undeveloped” vs “civilized”; or “the world’s great religions” vs. “tribal superstitions,” “cults,” “idolatry” or “devil-worship.” Depending on where it was created, a sculpture could either be a “masterpiece of religious art” or an “idol,” “fetish,” or “devil.” Few people realize that “Western” scientists did not match the accuracy of ancient Maya calculations of the length of the solar year until the mid-20th century.

RENAMING: Dutch colonists called the Khoi-khoi people “Hottentots” (stutterers). Russians called the northwest Siberian Nentsy “Samoyed” (cannibals). These are blatant examples, but many nationalities are still called by unflattering names given by their enemies: “Sioux” (Lakota); “Miao” (Hmong); “Lapps” (Saami); “Basques” (Euskadi); “Eskimos” (Inuit). European names have replaced the originals in many places: Nigeria, Australia, New Caledonia, New Britain, etc. (But “Rhodesia” bit the dust, after a revolution.)

DEGRADATION OF MEANINGS: “Mumbo jumbo” has become a cliché signifying meaningless superstitions, but it comes from a Mandinke word — mama dyambo — for a ritual staff bearing the image of a female ancestor. (Look it up in any good dictionary.) “Fetish” now connotes an obsessive sexual fixation, but originated as a Portuguese interpretation of sacred West African images as “sorcery” (feitição). The holy city of Islam is often appropriated in phrases like “a Mecca for shoppers.”

DOUBLE-THINK: Conquest becomes “unification,” “pacification,””opening up,” and conquered regions are dubbed “protectorates.” The convention is to use Europe as the standard, writing texts from the viewpoint of the conquerors / colonizers. Thus, a Rajasthani rebellion against English rule was termed the “Indian Mutiny.” A peculiarity of this thinking is the tendency to refer to times of bloody invasions and enslavement with respectful nostalgia, as in “The Golden Age of Greece” and “The Glory That Was Rome,” or “How the West Was Won.” British subjugation of southern Nigeria is recast as The Pacification of the Primitive Tribes of the Lower Niger.

A contributor to Men Become Civilized, edited by Trevor Cairns, explains it all to children:

“When the king of one city conquered others, he would have to make sure that all the people in all the cities knew what to do. He would have to see that they all had rules to follow, so that they would live peacefully together.”

Double-think finds ways to recast genocide as regrettable but necessary, due to failings of the people being killed, who are somehow unable to “adapt.” Distancing the agent is key here, obscuring the violence with the idea that some kind of natural process is at work: “vanishing races,” “by that time the Indians had disappeared.”

Read THE POWER OF IMAGES by Max Dashu here

IF IT WAS GREAT, IT MUST HAVE BEEN WHITE by Max Dashu

A 19th century French engraving imagines the conquest of Algeria as a showering of the benefits of superior civilization on abject, genuflecting North Africans.

Continued from:  “Racism History and Lies “

IF IT WAS GREAT, IT MUST HAVE BEEN WHITE: If advanced science, art, or architecture is found in Africa or South America, then Phoenecians, Greeks, Celts, Vikings (or, in the extreme case, space aliens) must be invoked to explain their presence. (Here, whiteness often functions as a relative concept, as “lighter than.”) This bias gives rise to a pronounced tendency to date American or African cultures later than warranted, and as a result dating for these regions is constantly having to be revised further back into the past as evidence of greater antiquity piles up.

Corollary: IF IT WAS WHITE, IT MUST HAVE BEEN GREAT. Thus, the conqueror Charlemagne was a great man, in spite of his genocidal campaign against the Saxons, but the Asian conquerors Attila the Hun and Genghis Khan were simply evil. Stereotypes of head-hunters picture Africans (in the absence of any evidence for such a practice there) but never Celtic head-hunters in France and Britain — much less Lord Kitchener making off with the Mahdi’s skull in Sudan, or U.S. settlers taking scalps and body parts of Indian people. This doctrine also underlies the common assumption that European conquest must have improved life for subject peoples.

 IF IT WAS NOT WHITE, AND ITS GREATNESS IS UNDENIABLE, THEN IT MUST BE DEPRECATED IN SOME WAY:  Example:The Epic of Man, published in the ’60s by Time/Life Books, says of the advanced civilization of ancient Pakistan: “It is known that a static and sterile quality pervaded Indus society.” It used to be the academic fashion to call ancient Egypt a “moribund” civilization which “stifled creativity.” Similar writings dismissed the “Incas” (Quechua) as “totalitarian,” or the Chinese as “isolated” and “resistant to change,” ignoring their interchange with steppe societies as well as Southeast Asian cultures.

Original post at Suppressed Histories

RACISM, HISTORY AND LIES by Max Dashu

Some doctrines of racial supremacy as classically taught
in Euro/American institutions, textbooks and media:

PHYSICAL CALIBRATION DOCTRINE:   In which white anthropologists treat people as racial specimens, measuring “cephalic indices” and attempting to prove superiority of the “white” brain. Ugly racist terminology: “prognathism,” “platyrhiny,” “steatopygous,” “sub-Egyptian.” Mug-shot lineups of “the Veddan female,” “Arapaho male, “Negroid type,” “Mongoloid specimen” characterize this approach. Out of favor in the mid-20th-century, it has enjoyed a revisionist comeback with sociobiology and works claiming racial differentials in intelligence, such as “The Bell Curve.”

TECHNOLOGICAL CALIBRATION DOCTRINE:   Insists on forcing archaeological finds as well as living cultures into a grid of “development” based on whether tools, materials and techniques valued by “Western” scholars were in use. Example: “They were a stone age civilization who never discovered the wheel!” This model forces cultures into a progressional paradigm: Old and New Stone Ages, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Industrial Revolution, Space Age. This classification ignores the complexity of culture, and the fact that metallurgic technology and military might are not the ultimate measure of advanced culture.

STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT DOCTRINE:  The assumption that “primitive” cultures represent lower “stages” in historical evolution, and have yet to attain advanced forms of culture. One English scholar referred to “the child-races of Africa.” Usually, social hierarchy, militarization and …”;

Read more

Tell me again why we should forget

See on Scoop.itCulturally Teaching

“I see that you haven’t forgotten Pearl Harbor yet

Tell me again why you say you can’t

You paid everyone else for their time in the camps

 

Tell me again why we should ignore

The many times…”; 

 .

See on www.reunionblackfamily.com

Native Americans according to the first Western accounts

RE-BLOGGED FROM:  http://abagond.wordpress.com

“The first accounts of Native Americans, the native peoples of the Americas, that were widely read in the West were those of Columbus in 1493 and Amerigo Vespucci in 1505. Vespucci’s account was so well known that the new land was called America, after his Latin name, Americus.

Columbus in his letter of 1493, speaking about…”; via @JulianAbagond

Timeline Photos | Facebook

See on Scoop.itCulturally Teaching

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Blacks-History-And-Africa-Education/299199820174323?ref=hl
“Letter from King Leopold II of Belgium to Colonial Missionaries, 1883 .2 .Convert always the blacks by using the whip. Keep their women in nine months of
submission to work freely for us. Force them to pay you in sign of recognition-goats, chicken or
eggs-every time you visit their villages. And make sure that niggers never become rich. Sing every
day that it’s impossible for the rich to enter heaven. Make them pay tax each week at Sunday mass.
Use the money supposed for the poor, to build flourishing business centres. Institute a confessional
system, which allows you to be good detectives denouncing any black that has a different
consciousness contrary to that of the decision-maker. Teach the niggers to forget their heroes and to
adore only ours. Never present a chair to a black that comes to visit you. Don’t give him more than…”; READ MORE/ORIGINAL POST at “Blacks History And Education” on FB

See on www.facebook.com

AFRIKA : AFRIKAN POWER IN AN EUROCENTRIC WORLD

See on Scoop.itCulturally Teaching

Our mission is to unite every black family world wide ,We seek to foster a more unified and stronger black community in which our community is included and valued, by sharing ideas based on the challenges we .

See on www.reunionblackfamily.com

“Stop Saying Columbus ‘Discovered’ the Americas—It Erases Indigenous History”

Re-blogged from:  Moorbey

christopher_columbus_on_santa_maria_in_1492.

Christopher Columbus on Santa Maria in 1492.

Just over a hundred years ago in Peru, a tall history professor from Yale University left his camp in a valley northwest of Cusco, and walked through cloud forest to a mountain ridge more than 7,500 feet above sea level. There, high above the roaring Urubamba river, he found an ancient stone citadel; sculpted terraces of temples and tombs, granite buildings and polished walls that were covered in centuries of vines and vegetation.

Hiram Bingham had stumbled across the Inca site of Machu Picchu, the site he believed to be the ‘Lost city of the Incas’. ‘Machu Picchu might prove to be the largest and most important ruin discovered in South America since the days of the Spanish conquest,’ he wrote in the 1913 edition of the National Geographic.

But his words were misleading. Bingham hadn’t ‘discovered’ Machu Picchu. Nor was it ‘lost’. He may have alerted it to the western scientific world – for there were no accounts of it in the chronicles of the Spanish invaders – but local tribes must have been aware of its existence. Yet Christopher Heaney, a Fellow at the University of Texas and author of a book on Hiram Bingham, claims the historian was amazed to discover an indigenous family close to the citadel. ‘When he climbed the mountain he was very surprised to find an Indian family at the top of the ridge,’ he said. Why Bingham was surprised is bewildering in itself.

It is unlikely that his terminology had adverse ramifications for the local indigenous peoples, but the language of colonists has long had a tragic part to play in the destruction of tribal peoples across the world. For centuries, tribal lands have been referred to as ‘empty’ in order to justify their theft for commercial, military or conservation reasons. After all, if a region is uninhabited, so the expedient thinking goes, there are by definition no human rights to address. Similarly, racist prejudices – the labeling of tribal peoples as ‘backward’, ‘uncivilized’ or ‘savage’ – have inculcated a popular attitude of disrespect and fear, so underpinning (and even justifying, in the perpetrator’s mind), the appalling treatment to which tribal peoples have been subjected.

When European settlers landed on the shores of Australia, they claimed the land was ‘terra nullius’ – land belonging to no one. It wasn’t. The Aboriginal people had lived there for perhaps 50,000 years yet the concept of ‘terra nullius’ was only properly overthrown in 1992, allowing the lands to be stolen legitimately from the people who had first occupied the continent. Under British colonial law, Aboriginal people had no rights; they were deemed too ‘primitive’ to be owners. In just over 100 years from the first invasion, the Aboriginal population was reduced from an estimated one million to only 60,000.

Similarly, when the trade winds carried Christopher Columbus to the ‘New World’ in 1492, he had in fact arrived in the homelands of peoples who had lived there for millennia: tribes who had their own successful laws, rituals, beliefs, values, ways of life and religions. ‘The whites shout out today, “We discovered the land of Brazil,”’ says Davi Kopenawa, a Yanomami spokesman, ‘as if it were empty! As if human beings hadn’t lived in it since the beginning of time!’ a thought echoed by Megaron Txukarramae, a Kayapo Indian when he said, ‘The land that the whites called Brazil belonged to the Indians. You invaded it and took possession of it.’

The reality of course is that South and North America were not ‘new,’ Australia was not ‘empty’ before Europeans arrived and Machu Picchu was not ‘discovered’ in 1911. ‘The phrase ‘discovery’ of America is obviously inaccurate,’ wrote the linguist and philosopher Professor Noam Chomsky. ‘What they discovered was an America that had been discovered thousands of years before by its inhabitants. Thus what took place was the invasion of America – an invasion…”; Read more/original post on Moorbey.wordpress.com

Timeline: Congo & Great Zimbabwe

10_1a2nd century AD – beginning of Iron Age

10th century – Late Iron Age, cattle-keeping community established at Leopard’s Kopje, near modern Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

11th century – Late Iron Age

1200 – Beginning of Great Zimbabwe state

1400 – Most of Great Zimbabwe stone buildings completed. Capital of BaKongo kingdom fixed at Mbanza Kongo

1482 – Portuguese adventurer, Diogo Cao, arrives at the mouth of the River Kongo.
First European contract with BaKongo

1491 – Manikongo (king) of Kongo, Nzinga a Nkuwu, is christened Joao II

1500 – Great Zimbabwe finally abandoned

1506 – Affonso I (formerly Nzinga Mbemba) becomes Manikongo (king) of Kongo

15th century – Great Zimbabwe decline. Movement of people North East to found Mutapa state and towards the south to establish Torwa state

1512 – Portuguese design coat of arms for Manikongo

1593 – Portuguese build Fort Jesus in Mombasa

1631 – Sultan Muhammad Yusif bin Hassan massacres Portuguese garrison in Fort Jesus

1639 – Queen Nzinga of Ndongo, in modern Angola, begins military campaign against Portuguese

1665 – Kongo defeated by Portuguese at battle of Mbwila

1689 – Fort Jesus falls to Omani Arabs

1704 – Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita claims to be possessed by St. Anthony. She founds a church and launches a mission to revive Kongo’s former glory

1706 - Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita burnt at stake for heresy

1850 – Ovimbundu traders, in the middle of modern Angola, reach Lamba of Northern Rhodesia

1856 – Msiri, Nyamwezi trading king, establishes his seat of power in Katanga, in the southern part of modern DR Congo

1873 – Zanzibar slave market closed down

From:  http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/10chapter1.shtml

Mining

“The 1860′s saw the British embark on serious mineral exploitation. They started diamond mining in Griqualand West. Gold mining began in Witwatersland in 1886.

Southern African gold had been exported for thousands of years to the Arab Peninsula and the Persian Gulf, but it had never been exploited on a massive scale. Now it was to be the focus of reckless European speculators and the investment houses of the world.

DECEIT
In 1889, Cecil Rhodes, already hugely wealthy from diamond mining, set his ambitions north of the Limpopo and tricked Lobengula, the King of the Ndebele into handing over his land. Ndebele thought he was granting Rhodes a limited mining concession.

In August 1889 the King wrote to Queen Victoria to complain:
“The white people are troubling me much about gold. If the queen hears that I have given away the whole country it is not so.”

“I contend that we are the first race in the world, and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race”

“I contend that we are the first race in the world, and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race…:; Read more

Oppression Of Khoikhoi and Xhosa

“The hunger for land is a central theme of southern African history from the 17th century onwards. It generated conflict, sparked off wars and displaced hundreds of thousands of people.

EXPANSION

The first Europeans in southern Africa confined themselves at first to the western part of the region, centring their activities on the Cape of Good Hope. Here the Dutch East India Company was established in 1652. Gradually the Dutch colony expanded north and east, displacing, in the first instance, the oldest known inhabitants of this region, the Khoikhoi (referred to by the Dutch as ‘hottentots’).

TRADITION DENIED
The Khoikhoi were part of a larger group called the Khoisan, spread across southern Africa, sharing much of the same language. The San branch were hunter gatherers; the Khoikhoi were herdsmen. As a whole, the Khoisan needed large amounts of land in order to hunt and graze their cattle. The Dutch refused to recognise their traditional grazing and hunting rights.

DEFEAT

The Dutch both stole and bought cattle off the Khoikhoi. In 1659, the Khoikhoi fought the Dutch over grazing land south of able Bay and lost. Soon the Khoikhoi way of life disintegrated.

NOT WIDE ENOUGH FOR BOTH OF US

“They objected that there was not enough grass for both their cattle and ours.

‘Are we not right therefore to prevent you from getting any more cattle? For, if you get many cattle, you come and occupy our pasture with them, and then say the land is not wide enough for us both! Who then, with the greatest degree of justice should give way, the natural owners, or the foreign invader?’”
Jan van Riebeek describing the Khoikhoi objections to the Dutch invasion of their pastures, quoted by Kevin Shillington in History of Africa.

The Dutch, who came to be known as Afrikaners (as well as Boers, which means farmers) started to expand their activities. They cultivated land and hunted across large distances. Subsequently, they acquired the title of Trekboers, when they embarked on long journeys or treks to get away from British officialdom in the Cape Colony.

SUBJUGATION

The Khoikhoi often ended up as slaves, either working in the Cape Colony, or as farm labourers for the Dutch. The final blow came to them in 1713 when they fell victim to a small pox epidemic brought on a Dutch ship. The descendants of the Khoikhoi and San can be found in the deserts of Botswana and Namibia today.

XHOSA

The second group of original inhabitants who suffered in the 19th century were the Xhosa. They had their western settlements between the Bushmans River and Fish River. They came into conflict with both the Dutch and then the British.

There were two major battles in the 1830′s and 1840′s. By 1854 the British had stripped the Xhosa chiefs of power and planted them as salaried functionaries in the colonial administration.

COLLAPSING WORLD ORDER

The loss of power and land was devastating, materially and psychologically. The final blow came when their cattle became infected with a lethal lung infection, killing as many as 80 per cent of some of the chiefs’ cattle. Their world order and sense of purpose collapsed and the Xhosa turned to their religion to find the reasons behind these disasters.

PROPHECY & SUICIDE

A sixteen year old prophetess claimed to have been in touch with the ancestors who called on Xhosa leaders to create a new beginning for their people. This, the ancestors said, could only be done by wiping out the old, and that meant killing the remaining cattle.

THE SPIRITS COMMAND

You are to tell the people that the whole community is about to rise again from the dead. Then go on to say to them all the cattle living now must be slaughtered, for they are reared with defiled hands, as the people handle witchcraft.

Say to them there must be no ploughing of lands, rather must the people dig deep pits, erect new huts, set up wide, strongly built cattlefold, make milksacks, and weave doors from buka roots…”
The words of the spirits, talking to 16-year-old Nongqawuse, as recorded by W.W. Qqoba in his narrative of the Cattle killing, based on oral sources. Quoted by J.B. Peires, in his book The Dead will Arise.

DIVISION
The Xhosa people became completely divided over what to do. The amathamba ‘soft’ believers thought they must obey; the amagogotya or ‘hard’ unbelievers rejected the culling.

CATTLE KILLING
In February 1856, the Xhosa began killing their cattle. A total of 400,000 were culled. 40,000 Xhosa died as a result of this and many of those that survived had to work in Cape Town or as labourers on farms.

AFTERMATH
“Every day King Williams Town was thronged and its inhabitants distressed at the sight of emaciated living skeletons passing from house to house. Dead bodies were picked up in different parts within and around the limits of the towns, and scarcely a day passed over, that men…”; Read more -Original article here

Southern Africa: THE RISE OF SHAKA

12_1aIn the first two decades of the 19th century, the Zulu people grew in power and expanded their territory under their leader, Shaka. This expansion, was in some measure a response to drought, putting pressure on the Zulus to find new land.

In addition, the movement of Europeans into new territory, which was not theirs, contributed to a situation of flux of which the Zulus took advantage. However, the Zulu expansion and the defeat of rival Nguni kingdoms is hard to imagine without Shaka’s hugely forceful personality and exacting military discipline.

EMPEROR SHAKA THE GREAT
From the tales of the war and their fame in Nguniland, the Zulus knew how popular their fight was against Zwide. Shaka, proud of these achievements and eager to encourage his army, addressed the regiment:

Great nation of Zulu,
You have shown courage against a superior enemy.
The nations that spoke of you with contempt are chilled by your songs.
Kings and princes shiver in their little thrones.
Enemies flee to hide in the mountain caves.”
This excerpt celebrates Shaka’s victory against King Zwide of the Ndwandwe Kingdom, in 1818 at the Mhalatuse River. Taken from Zulu epic poem, Emperor Shaka the Great, translated by Mazisi Kunene, drawing on a number of Zulu oral historians.

Shaka created a standing army of 40,000 warriors, made up of regiments separated out into age groups. The communities he defeated were plundered for cattle and grain. These attacks were not free for alls, with Zulu soldiers taking what they wanted, but highly organised raids, with all the booty becoming the property of Shaka.

EFFECTS OF ZULU EXPANSION

The Ngwane moved northwards in response to form the Swazi kingdom.
The Ndwandwe also went north to establish the Gaza kingdom.
The Ndebele moved in 1840 to what is now south western Zimbabwe.

MFECANE :  1817-1828

More destruction was caused by those whom Shaka defeated, than by his own forces. Such was the case of the Hlubi and the Ngwane. Bereft of all social order, these refugees took to looting and pillaging wherever they went. They reduced the landscape in the Natal and much of the Orange Free State into a wasteland. This period of change became known as the Mfecane, which is said to derive originally from a Zulu word meaning “crushing”. For the past ten years the word and ideas behind it have aroused much debate and argument.

Many South African historians now believe that Europeans, and slave traders in particular, played a much larger part in upheaval in the region in the first quarter of the 19th century than was previously thought, and that too much emphasis has been put on Shaka’s impact.

The black south African writer and journalist Sol Plaatje wrote movingly about this period after Shaka’s death, in a novel. Entitled Mhudi, it focussed on the Ndebele defeat of the Barolong in the 1830′s. This is believed to be the first novel written in English by an African.

THE ADVANCE OF THE NDEBELE

“Mzilikazi’s tribe (the Ndbele) originally was a branch of the Zulu nation which Shaka once”;  Read more here

Africa Must Benefit From its Mineral Resources – Atlanta Black Star

See on Scoop.itCulturally Teaching

Africa’s political economy is deeply ingrained with its history of the exploitation and mismanagement of its mineral and natural resources.

See on atlantablackstar.com

King Leopold II of Belgium He owned the Congo during his reign as the constitutional monarch of Belgium After several failed colonial attempts in Asia and Africa

King Leopold II of Belgium He owned the Congo during his reign as the constitutional monarch of Belgium After several failed colonial attempts in Asia and Africa.

What I was not taught about American history

Originally posted on Abagond:

Great_Migration_Family

Here are some of the things in American history I was taught little to nothing about at American high school. I post this as a way to compare notes and get ideas for future posts. It is hard to know what you do not know, so comments  and suggestions about what I left out are welcomed!

Note: I will not count anything after 1965 since the school year would always seem to end just before the Vietnam War! Also note that while some of these did not take place on American soil, they are still important for understanding American history, like the English Civil War or Caribbean slavery. 

In no particular order:

  1. Delaware Indians – who used to own the land the high school stood on
  2. W.E.B. DuBois
  3. Medgar Evers
  4. Malcolm X
  5. slave patrols
  6. Nat Turner
  7. Denmark Vesey
  8. Stono Rebellion
  9. Toussaint Louverture
  10. Abolition of the Transatlantic slave trade
  11. The Middle Passage

View original 364 more words

What was Jim Crow

“Jim Crow was the name of the racial caste system which operated primarily, but not exclusively in southern and border states, between 1877 and the mid-1960s. Jim Crow was more than a series of rigid anti-black laws.

It was a way of life. Under Jim Crow, African Americans were relegated to the status of second class citizens. Jim Crow represented the legitimization of anti-black racism. Many Christian ministers and theologians taught that whites were the Chosen people, blacks were cursed to be servants, and God supported racial segregation. Craniologists, eugenicists, phrenologists, and Social Darwinists, at every educational level, buttressed the belief that blacks were innately intellectually and culturally inferior to whites. Pro-segregation politicians gave eloquent speeches on the great danger of integration: the mongrelization of the white race. Newspaper and magazine writers routinely referred to blacks as niggers, coons, and darkies; and worse, their articles reinforced anti-black stereotypes. Even children’s games portrayed blacks as inferior beings (see “From Hostility to Reverence: 100 Years of African-American Imagery in Games”). All major societal institutions reflected and supported the oppression of blacks.

Seated in Rear The Jim Crow system was undergirded by the following beliefs or rationalizations: whites were superior to blacks in all important ways, including but not limited to intelligence, morality, and civilized behavior; sexual relations between blacks and whites would produce a mongrel race which would destroy America; treating blacks as equals would encourage interracial sexual unions; any activity which suggested social equality encouraged interracial sexual relations; if necessary, violence must be used to keep blacks at the bottom of the racial hierarchy. The following Jim Crow etiquette norms show how inclusive and pervasive these norms were:

  1. A black male could not offer his hand (to shake hands) with a white male because it implied being socially equal. Obviously, a black male could not offer his hand or any other part of his body to a white woman, because he risked being accused of rape.

     

  2. Blacks and whites were not supposed to eat together. If they did eat together, whites were to be served first, and some sort of partition was to be placed between them.

     

  3. Under no circumstance was a black male to offer to light the cigarette of a white female — that gesture implied intimacy.

     

  4. Blacks were not allowed to show public affection toward one another in public, especially kissing, because it offended whites.

     

  5. Jim Crow etiquette prescribed that blacks were introduced to whites, never whites to blacks. For example: “Mr. Peters (the white person), this is Charlie (the black person), that I spoke to you about.”

     

  6. Whites did not use courtesy titles of respect when referring to blacks, for example, Mr., Mrs., Miss., Sir, or Ma’am. Instead, blacks were called by their first names. Blacks had to use courtesy titles when referring to whites, and were not allowed to call them by their first names.

     

  7. If a black person rode in a car driven by a white person, the black person sat in the back seat, or the back of a truck.

     

  8. White motorists had the right-of-way at all intersections.

Stetson Kennedy, the author of Jim Crow Guide (1990), offered these simple rules that blacks were supposed to observe in conversing with whites:

  1. Never assert or even intimate that a white person is lying.
  2. Never impute dishonorable intentions to a white person.
  3. Never suggest that a white person is from an inferior class.
  4. Never lay claim to, or overly demonstrate, superior knowledge or intelligence.
  5. Never curse a white person.
  6. Never laugh derisively at a white person.
  7. Never comment upon the appearance of a white female.

restroom sign Jim Crow etiquette operated in conjunction with Jim Crow laws (black codes). When most people think of Jim Crow they think of laws (not the Jim Crow etiquette) which excluded blacks from public transport and facilities, juries, jobs, and neighborhoods. The passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution had granted blacks the same legal protections as whites. However, after 1877, and the election of Republican Rutherford B. Hayes, southern and border states began restricting the liberties of blacks. Unfortunately for blacks, the Supreme Court helped undermine the Constitutional protections of blacks with the infamous Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) case, which legitimized Jim Crow laws and the Jim Crow way of life.

In 1890, Louisiana passed the “Separate Car Law,” which purported to aid passenger comfort by creating “equal but separate” cars for blacks and whites. This was a ruse. No public accommodations, including railway travel, provided blacks with equal facilities. The Louisiana law made it illegal for blacks to sit in coach seats reserved for whites, and whites could not sit in seats reserved for blacks. In 1891, a group of blacks decided to test the Jim Crow law. They had Homer A. Plessy, who was seven-eighths white and one-eighth black (therefore, black), sit in the white-only railroad coach. He was arrested. Plessy’s lawyer argued that Louisiana did not have the right to label one citizen as white and another black for the purposes of restricting their rights and privileges. In Plessy, the Supreme Court stated that so long as state governments provided legal process and legal freedoms for blacks, equal to those of whites, they could maintain separate institutions to facilitate these rights. The Court, by a 7-2 vote, upheld the Louisiana law, declaring that racial separation did not necessarily mean an abrogation of equality. In practice, Plessy represented the legitimization of two societies: one white, and advantaged; the other, black, disadvantaged and despised.

Blacks were denied the right to vote by grandfather clauses (laws that restricted the right to vote to people whose ancestors had voted before the Civil War), poll taxes (fees charged to poor blacks), white primaries (only Democrats could vote, only whites could be Democrats), and literacy tests (“Name all the Vice Presidents and Supreme Court Justices throughout America’s history”). Plessy sent this message to southern and border states: Discrimination against blacks is acceptable.

drinking fountains Jim Crow states passed statutes severely regulating social interactions between the races. Jim Crow signs were placed above water fountains, door entrances and exits, and in front of public facilities. There were separate hospitals for blacks and whites, separate prisons, separate public and private schools, separate churches, separate cemeteries, separate public restrooms, and separate public accommodations. In most instances, the black facilities were grossly inferior — generally, older, less-well-kept. In other cases, there were no black facilities — no Colored public restroom, no public beach, no place to sit or eat. Plessy gave Jim Crow states a legal way to ignore their constitutional obligations to their black citizens.

ticket Jim Crow laws touched every aspect of everyday life. For example, in 1935, Oklahoma prohibited blacks and whites from boating together. Boating implied social equality. In 1905, Georgia established separate parks for blacks and whites. In 1930, Birmingham, Alabama, made it illegal for blacks and whites to play checkers or dominoes together. Here are some of the typical Jim Crow laws, as compiled by the Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site Interpretive Staff:

  • Barbers. No colored barber shall serve as a barber (to) white girls or women (Georgia).

     

  • Blind Wards. The board of trustees shall…maintain a separate building…on separate ground for the admission, care, instruction, and support of all blind persons of the colored or black race (Louisiana).

     

  • Burial. The officer in charge shall not bury, or allow to be buried, any colored persons upon ground set apart or used for the burial of white persons (Georgia).

     

  • Buses.All passenger stations in this state operated by any motor transportation company shall have separate waiting rooms or space and separate ticket windows for the white and colored races (Alabama).

     

  • Child Custody. It shall be unlawful for any parent, relative, or other white person in this State, having the control or custody of any white child, by right of guardianship, natural or acquired, or otherwise, to dispose of, give or surrender such white child permanently into the custody, control, maintenance, or support, of a negro (South Carolina).

     

  • Education.The schools for white children and the schools for negro children shall be conducted separately (Florida).

     

  • Libraries. The state librarian is directed to fit up and maintain a separate place for the use of the colored people who may come to the library for the purpose of reading books or periodicals (North Carolina).

     

  • Mental Hospitals. The Board of Control shall see that proper and distinct apartments are arranged for said patients, so that in no case shall Negroes and white persons be together (Georgia).

     

  • Militia. The white and colored militia shall be separately enrolled, and shall never be compelled to serve in the same organization. No organization of colored troops shall be permitted where white troops are available and where whites are permitted to be organized, colored troops shall be under the command of white officers (North Carolina).

     

  • Nurses. No person or corporation shall require any White female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in hospitals, either public or private, in which negro men are placed (Alabama).

     

  • Prisons. The warden shall see that the white convicts shall have separate apartments for both eating and sleeping from the negro convicts (Mississippi).

     

  • Reform Schools. The children of white and colored races committed to the houses of reform shall be kept entirely separate from each other (Kentucky).

     

  • Teaching. Any instructor who shall teach in any school, college or institution where members of the white and colored race are received and enrolled as pupils for instruction shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof, shall be fined… (Oklahoma).

     

  • Wine and Beer. All persons licensed to conduct the business of selling beer or wine…shall serve either white people exclusively or colored people exclusively and shall not sell to the two races within the same room at any time (Georgia).1

     

riprap The Jim Crow laws and system of etiquette were undergirded by violence, real and threatened. Blacks who violated Jim Crow norms, for example, drinking from the white water fountain or trying to vote, risked their homes, their jobs, even their lives. Whites could physically beat blacks with impunity. Blacks had little legal recourse against these assaults because the Jim Crow criminal justice system was all-white: police, prosecutors, judges, juries, and prison officials. Violence was instrumental for Jim Crow. It was a method of social control. The most extreme forms of Jim Crow violence were lynchings.

Lynchings were public, often sadistic, murders carried out by mobs. Between 1882, when the first reliable data were collected, and 1968, when lynchings had become rare, there were 4,730 known lynchings, including 3,440 black men and women. Most of the victims of Lynch Law were hanged or shot, but some were burned at the stake, castrated, beaten with clubs, or dismembered. In the mid-1800s, whites constituted the majority of victims (and perpetrators); however, by the period of Radical Reconstruction, blacks became the most frequent lynching victims. This is an early indication that lynching was used as an intimidation tool to keep blacks, in this case the newly freed people, “in their places.” The great majority of lynchings occurred in southern and border states, where the resentment against blacks ran deepest. According to the social economist Gunnar Myrdal (1994): “The southern states account for nine-tenths of the lynchings. More than two thirds of the remaining one-tenth occurred in the six states which immediately border the South” (pp. 560-561).

Many whites claimed that although lynchings were distasteful, they were necessary supplements to the criminal justice system because blacks were prone to violent crimes, especially the rapes of white women. Arthur Raper investigated nearly a century of lynchings and concluded that approximately one-third of all the victims were falsely accused (Myrdal, 1994, p. 561).

Under Jim Crow any and all sexual interactions between black men and white women was illegal, illicit, socially repugnant, and within the Jim Crow definition of rape. Although only 19.2 percent of the lynching victims between 1882 to 1951 were even accused of rape, lynch law was often supported on the popular belief that lynchings were necessary to protect white women from black rapists. Myrdal (1994) refutes this belief in this way: “There is much reason to believe that this figure (19.2) has been inflated by the fact that a mob which makes the accusation of rape is secure from any further investigation; by the broad Southern definition of rape to include all sexual relations between Negro men and white women; and by the psychopathic fears of white women in their contacts with Negro men” (pp. 561-562). Most blacks were lynched for demanding civil rights, violating Jim Crow etiquette or laws, or in the aftermath of race riots.

Lynchings were most common in small and middle-sized towns where blacks often were economic competitors to the local whites. These whites resented any economic and political gains made by blacks. Lynchers were seldomly arrested, and if arrested, rarely convicted. Raper (1933) estimated that “at least one-half of the lynchings are carried out with police officers participating, and that in nine-tenths of the others the officers either condone or wink at the mob action” (pp. 13-14). Lynching served many purposes: it was cheap entertainment; it served as a rallying, uniting point for whites; it functioned as an ego-massage for low-income, low-status whites; it was a method of defending white domination and helped stop or retard the fledgling social equality movement.

Lynch mobs directed their hatred against one (sometimes several) victims. The victim was an example of what happened to a black man who tried to vote, or who looked at a white woman, or who tried to get a white man’s job. Unfortunately for blacks, sometimes the mob was not satisfied to murder a single or several victims. Instead, in the spirit of pogroms, the mobs went into black communities and destroyed additional lives and property. Their immediate goal was to drive out — through death or expulsion — all blacks; the larger goal was to maintain, at all costs, white supremacy. These pogrom-like actions are often referred to as riots; however, Gunnar Myrdal (1944) was right when he described these “riots” as “a terrorization or massacre…a mass lynching” (p. 566). Interestingly, these mass lynchings were primarily urban phenomena, whereas the lynching of single victims was primarily a rural phenomena.

James Weldon Johnson, the famous black writer, labeled 1919 as “The Red Summer.” It was red from racial tension; it was red from bloodletting. During the summer of 1919, there were race riots in Chicago, Illinois; Knoxville and Nashville, Tennessee; Charleston, South Carolina; Omaha, Nebraska; and two dozen other cities. W.E.B. DuBois (1986), the black social scientist and civil rights activist, wrote: “During that year seventy-seven Negroes were lynched, of whom one was a woman and eleven were soldiers; of these, fourteen were publicly burned, eleven of them being burned alive. That year there were race riots large and small in twenty-six American cities including thirty-eight killed in a Chicago riot of August; from twenty-five to fifty in Phillips County, Arkansas; and six killed in Washington” (p. 747).

The riots of 1919 were not the first or last “mass lynchings” of blacks, as evidenced by the race riots in Wilmington, North Carolina (1898); Atlanta, Georgia (1906); Springfield, Illinois (1908); East St. Louis, Illinois (1917); Tulsa, Oklahoma (1921); and Detroit, Michigan (1943). Joseph Boskin, author of Urban Racial Violence (1976), claimed that the riots of the 1900s had the following traits:

  1. In each of the race riots, with few exceptions, it was white people that sparked the incident by attacking black people.

     

  2. In the majority of the riots, some extraordinary social condition prevailed at the time of the riot: prewar social changes, wartime mobility, post-war adjustment, or economic depression.

     

  3. The majority of the riots occurred during the hot summer months.

     

  4. Rumor played an extremely important role in causing many riots. Rumors of some criminal activity by blacks against whites perpetuated the actions of the white mobs.

     

  5. The police force, more than any other institution, was invariably involved as a precipitating cause or perpetuating factor in the riots. In almost every one of the riots, the police sided with the attackers, either by actually participating in, or by failing to quell the attack.

     

  6. In almost every instance, the fighting occurred within the black community. (pp. 14-15)

Boskin omitted the following: the mass …” Read original article here

The Arab trader argument

Originally posted on Abagond:

GeromeslavemarketThe Arab trader argument is my name for an argument white Americans often use to defend the evil they do in the world. It goes like this: if white Americans do something evil and terrible it is all right – or at least not all that bad – so long as they can find at least one example from world history of someone else doing the same thing. Thus the Atlantic slave trade was not so bad because Arabs traders sold slaves too!

See how it works? Pretty cool trick.

Not!

The thing is utterly morally bankrupt. It is the everyone-does-it argument that we tried when we were eight . Our mothers did not buy it then and it does not work now – except maybe for the morally blind.

But that is just what  many white Americans seem to be: morally blind. They know the evil that is…

View original 433 more words

READER APPRECIATION AWARD – THANK YOU Moorbey!

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@Moorbey of the blog moorbey has been so kind to nominate my blog whatsimportantinlife for the Reader Appreciation Award.

THANK YOU my dear blogger friend, so much for this kind gesture!

The rules of this award are:

Identify and show appreciation of the blogger who awarded you. You must add the award logo to your blog. Tell your readers 7 things about yourself. You must nominate 5-10 of your favourite bloggers for this award. Inform your nominees that you nominated them.

Seven things about myself:

1.      From where came most visits to my blog so far today?

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2.       From where came most visits to my blog this month?

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3.       Which blog posts attracted most visits so far today?

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4.       Which blog posts attracted most visits this month?

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5.       5.  Which blog posts attracted most comments recently?

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6.       6.  What are the Comments statistics of my blog?

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* Based on the 1000 most recent comments.

 7.       7.  Which referrers referred most to my blog this week?

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My ten nominees are:

http://koketsomoeti.wordpress.com/

http://legendaryafricablog.wordpress.com/

http://tumelosejomatsheka.wordpress.com/

http://www.racefiles.com

http://renegadeslave.wordpress.com/

http://mytruesense.org/

http://moorbey.wordpress.com/

http://kushiteprince.wordpress.com/

http://abagond.wordpress.com/

http://rwswj.wordpress.com/

Aint a dang thing changed: From the ‘TILL’ Generation to the TRAYVON Generation

re-blogged from/author:
Dr David J. Leonard

Emmett-Trayvon-5“…Rage . . . anger . . . sadness;

Angry at the prosecution & police; the jurors and the Zimmerman supporters; angry at CNN (the defense) and so much more;

Angry at a system that at its core has no concern for black life;

Furious that we are not shocked – the depths of white supremacy run deep;

Full of rage at the silence from white America; at the unwillingness to account for racism, white supremacy and white privilege

Sick and tired of excuses, denials, distractions, and dismissals;

Outraged by the celebration – Fox News, the right wing, and the Zimmerman GANG;

Outraged by their smiles and laughs, their arrogance and entitlement;

Outraged by their lack of concern for Trayvon Martin, his friends and family, and the many people who are hurting, who are outraged, who are angry;

Enraged that those who care for life, who fight for justice, are filled with so much pain;

Sad, enraged, and devastated that almost 60 years later, from Till to Trayvon, aint much changed;

These memories of Till’s murder and the sham of a trial are a haunting reminder that aint a dang thing changed:

I was a senior at Los Angeles High School in California. It had a profound affect on me because I understood that it could have happened to any of us. It shook my confidence. It was as though terrorists had struck — but it was terrorists from our own country. It made me want to do everything I could to make sure this event would not happen ever again – Johnnie L. Cochran, Jr.

My memories are exact — and parallel those of many others my age — I felt vulnerable for the first time in my life — Till was a year younger — and recall believing that this could easily happen to me — for no reason at all. I lived in Pennsylvania at the time – Julian Bond

Emmett Till and I were about the same age. A week after he was murdered… I stood on the corner with a gang of boys, looking at pictures of him in the black newspapers and magazines. In one, he was laughing and happy. In the other, his head was swollen and bashed in, his eyes bulging out of their sockets and his mouth twisted and broken. His mother had done a bold thing. She refused to let him be buried until hundreds of thousands marched past his open casket in Chicago and looked down at his mutilated body. [I] felt a deep kinship to him when I learned he was born the same year and day I was. My father talked about it at night and dramatized the crime. I couldn’t get Emmett out of my mind… – Muhammed Ali

I was fifteen years old when I began to hate people. I hated the white men who murdered Emmett Till and I hated all the other whites who were responsible for the countless murders… But I also hated Negroes. I hated them for not standing up and doing something about the murders – Ann Moody

Almost 60 years later, this is America

When Zimmerman was acquitted today, it wasn’t because he’s a so-called white Hispanic. He’s not. It’s because he abides by the logic of white supremacy, and was supported by a defense team—and a swath of society—that supports the lingering idea that some black men must occasionally be killed with impunity in order to keep society-at-large safe – Aura Borgado

You see, tonight Trayvon Martin’s unremorseful killer was acquitted. Tonight, I fell silent with a dear friend when we heard the news.  Our eyes closed.  Our heads fell into our hands. There were no words. Tonight, I heard my mother’s voice crack and tremble under the weight of her grief as she expressed her shock and sadness at seeing an unapologetic black-child-stalker-and-killer walk free. And tonight I realized, more than ever, that as much as I love your potential, as much as I love the good that I know is in your heart, as much as I appreciate and see the beauty of your highest calling, the truth is that I feel like this relationship — our relationship — is becoming abusive and toxic on a level that nearly boggles the mind – Crystal Fleming

Zimmerman’s not guilty verdict will be contested for years to come. But he passed judgement on Trayvon that night summarily. Fucking punks,” Zimmerman told the police dispatcher that night. “These assholes. They always get away.” So true it’s painful. And so predictable it hurts – Gary Younge

I wish I had answers to soothe my worries, optimism to soothe my rage. I do know a change had better come. Because as James Baldwin said in the epigraph to one of my favorite collections of his essays, “God gave Noah the rainbow sign. No more water. The fire next time – Brittney Cooper

Perhaps history does not repeat itself exactly, but it is certainly prone to extended paraphrases. Long before the jury announced its decision, many people had seen what the outcome would be, had known that it would be a strange echo of the words Zimmerman uttered that rainy night in central Florida: they always get away – Jelani Cobb

About the Author (see below)

 Dr DAVID J. LEONARD

davidleonard1

A TIMELINE OF AFRICAN HISTORY

Re-blogged from:  PanAfricaNigeria.com

“c. 100,000 BC Humans migrate from Africa to other parts of the world

C. 3,118 BC King Menes unites the kingdoms of Upper and Lower in Egypt

C. 2,600 BC The first pyramid is built in Egypt

C. 2,000 BC Bantu speaking people begin to migrate southwards

C. 1,700 BC The kingdom of Kush arises south of Egypt

814 BC The city of Carthage is founded in Tunisia

C. 650 BC Iron working spreads in North Africa

30 BC Egypt becomes a province of the Roman Empire

C. 50 AD The kingdom of Axum arises in what is now Ethiopia

C. 350 AD Bantu speaking people arrive in Zambia

202 BC The Romans defeat Carthage at the battle of Zama in North Africa

C. 500 AD Iron working reaches southern Africa

642 AD The Arabs conquer Egypt

C. 650 AD Muslims travel across the Sahara on camels to trade

698 AD The Arabs capture Carthage

C. 800 AD Trading towns are formed on the east coast of Africa

C. 1100 AD The kingdom of Ife in Nigeria becomes important

C. 1300 AD The kingdom of Benin in Nigeria becomes important

1324 Mansa Musa ruler of Mali makes a pilgrimage to Mecca and shows off his great wealth

C. 1350 AD The kingdom of Songhai arises in west Africa

1415 The Portuguese conquer Ceuta in North Africa. It is the first European foothold in Africa.

1464-1491 Under its ruler Sunni Ali the kingdom of Songhai in west Africa conquers territory and expands

1488 The Portuguese sail round the Cape of Good Hope.

1508 The Portuguese begin to settle in Mozambique

1517 The Turks conquer Egypt

1518 Onwards African slaves are transported across the Atlantic by Europeans

1551 The Turks capture Tripoli

1562 England joins the slave trade

1564 The Songhai Empire in west Africa destroys the Empire of Mali

1575 The Portuguese begin to settle in Angola

1581 The Moroccans begin to expand across the Sahara

1590 The Moroccans capture Timbuktu

1591 The Moroccans destroy the Empire of Songhai

1652 The Dutch conquer  South Africa

1700 The rise of the Ashanti kingdom in West Africa

1787 The British  send freed slaves in Sierra Leone

1792 Denmark bans the slave trade

1806 The Dutch colony in South Africa becomes a British colony

1807

Sierra Leone and Gambia become British crown colonies

Britain bans the slave trade

1808 The USA bans the slave trade

1822 The USA founds a colony for freed slaves in Liberia

1828 Shaka king of the Zulus is assassinated

1830 The French invade Algeria. Over the following years the French build up an empire in North Africa

1847 Liberia becomes independent

1859-1869 The Suez Canal is built in Egypt

1879 The Zulus defeat the British at Isandlhwana but they are defeated at Ulundi

1880-1881 War between the British and Boers (Dutch speaking farmers) in South Africa

1882 Read more/Original post

IMHOTEP: THE GREATEST MAN THAT LIVED (PART 1)

Re-blogged from:  LEGENDARY AFRICA BLOG

““The Greatness of a man is not in how much wealth he acquires but in his integrity and his ability to affect those around him positively.” Bob Marley

 We are African, defined by morals and principles, so let us not believe that warmongers such as Alexandra so called great, Napoleon, Julius Caesar, or Winston Churchill are the greatest men that lived, these are not great men, let me tell you about a true great man, let me tell you about the Greatest man that lived, let me tell you about Imhotep.

Born at about 3000 B.C, born of an Architect named Kanofer, and from a mother named Khreduonkh and when his time married Ronpenofret. Imhotep’s career can be divided into at least 6 categories, Imhotep the prime minister, Imhotep the architect, he designed the step pyramid, Imhotep the first physician, Imhotep the Chief Priest, Imhotep the astronomer. Imhotep devoted his life to various activities and to write about his life I will need at least 6 articles. Today I want us to discuss Imhotep the first physician! Imhotep the healer.

Imhotep was a man of high and unsullied Character with a wide outlook on life, as well as a tender heart towards suffering humanity.

Imhotep perfomed his work as a Physician at the Temple of Memphis also known as Amenhotep temple. He practised at a temple for he knew how holy the gift of healing is. The temple of Memphis became known as a famous hospital and school of Medicine, Countless number of sick mained and blind persons went there and came back with renewed strength.

The legendary and much talked about Hippocrates of Greece was a student of Imhotep at the Memphis temple, the Hippocrates oath that Doctors or Physicians take is actually an oath that Imhotep made his students take at the Temple of Memphis. Phiny the elder, Hippocrates, Herophilos, Erasistrus and later Galen are the Greek students that were taught by Imhotep.

Know that Imhotep a black man is the father of medicine and not Hippocrates.

Imhotep was described by his people as the good physician of Gods and men, a kind and merciful god assuaging the suffering of those in pain, healing the disease of men and giving peaceful sleep to the restless and suffering. Medicine is our ancestor’s creation but every tribe and civilisation in Africa has always had the best healers, healers who overstand nature, healers who overstand herbs, we have always had healers that can cure diseases that western medication has failed to heal. The KhoiSan can cure cancer, I, the author have been cured from Epilepsy which western medication couldn’t. We have always been blessed and will always be blessed with skilful healers such as Imhotep.

Even in Morden western medicine, with less opportunities, Africans have shown how great they are, and again the enemy has claimed our genius as theirs, Hamilton Naki not Christiaan Barnard performed the first Heart transplant. Dr Ben Carson is the…” read THE ORIGINAL FULL article by clicking here

What you can do to end Racism

“Damali Ayo, that wonderful woman, has five steps that anyone can do to help end racism:

For white people:

Admit it: You have a race. So does everyone. Use the words “white people”. Know that racism still goes on in America and you benefit. Know that your opinions are shaped by the white experience.

Listen: When a person of colour trusts you enough to tell you about an experience with racism, just listen. Do not try to explain it away or somehow make it better.

Educate yourself:  Read up on racism on your own, in books and on the Internet. Read books and see films by people of colour. They are part of your country, you should know this stuff. But please do not ask people of colour all kinds of strange questions!

Broaden your experience: But only after the first three steps! Go alone to events and places where most people are not white – not as a tourist but to break out of your limited whitebread world. The same with your friends: you should have good friends from all sorts of backgrounds.

Take action: When someone says something racist, point it out, even if it is your friend or your mother. Be gentle but firm, civil but direct. Coming from you as a white person it will have a much bigger effect . The same with the media: write a letter to the editor and say that you are white. At work and at school push for a better mix of people – it is better for everyone, even white people.

For people of colour:

Get real: Be yourself! Be who you truly and deeply are, not what you see on television (those are stereotypes). Love yourself and teach your children to do the same. Love each other: when white people see us tearing each other down, they think it is all right to do it too.

Speak out: When someone says something racist, you must speak up: people will notice your silence and draw conclusions. Listen to white people. Know of materials that you can point them towards to find out more about racism.

Educate yourself: Know the true history of race in America. Teach it to your children and teach them to be proud of their race. Know that the stereotypes that white people have affect you from the inside too.

Build ties: Other races have had it bad too in America, not just yours. Read “A Different Mirror” by Ronald Takaki. You should have good friends from all sorts of backgrounds, white ones too.

Take care: Do not let racism or anger consume you. Sometimes it is better just to walk away from a racist act, especially when you are too tired or angry, but let people know that that is what you are doing.

There is way more at Damali Ayo’s website, fixracism.com. Thanks to Macon D at Stuff White People Do for his great interview with Damali Ayo where I found out about this.”

Re-blogged from:  ABAGOND

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Video

Are You White? Then You Should Probably Watch This.

whitelikeme
“Detail from a photograph featured in White Like Me

re-blogged from: MOORBEY.COM

Media Education Foundation

Do you become annoyed anytime a person of color writes, tweets, sings, or speaks about racial inequality? Have you ever wondered why it’s culturally acceptable for black people to use the n-word, while no one else is supposed to use it? Have you ever used the word postracial without a trace of irony? Do you believe that the sole purpose of affirmative action is to allow less qualified minorities to take jobs and positions from the smarter and more qualified?

If the answer to any of the above questions is yes, then you should check out White Like Me: Race, Racism, and White Privilege in America, anti-racism activist Tim Wise’s educational film about racism and white privilege. Especially if you’re white.

Wise is well known for his work discussing how race intersects with politics, policy, and culture in books like White Like Me: Reflections on Race from a Privileged Son (the basis of the film) and Dear White America: Letter to a New Minority. (You should probably check these out as well.) In this new film, he attempts to address a few very complex questions about race and ethnicity, while featuring interviews with notable scholars including Michelle Alexander, author of The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, and Harvard Law professor Charles Ogletree. Interspersed throughout are candid comments from white students discussing their views on affirmative action and whiteness. The film poses some big questions: “What does it mean to be white?” “Isn’t racism a thing of the past?” “What about us?” “Shouldn’t we be colorblind?”

etree. Interspersed throughout are candid comments from white students discussing their views on affirmative action and whiteness. The film poses some big questions: “What does it mean to be white?” “Isn’t racism a thing of the past?” “What about us?” “Shouldn’t we be colorblind?”

The film, which was directed by Scott Morris, begins with Wise’s personal story, revealing how he came to view the world as he does. As a child in Tennessee, his parents sent him to a preschool program at a historically black college, where he was one of only three nonblack students; by the time he reached elementary school, most of his friends were black, and he recognized quickly how differently those peers were treated by the teachers. In the late 1980s, he protested his university’s investments in companies doing business with apartheid South Africa. But for some time he ignored the advantages he himself had as a white person—until a black audience member at a rally where he was speaking asked him what he had done to address racism here in the U.S.

In 1990, he was appalled when the majority of white voters in Louisianaopted for former KKK leader David Duke for U.S. Senate. (Duke lost. He ran for governor the next year, and lost again, but still received the majority of the white vote.) “I’ve been trying to better understand for myself and to raise awareness among others about the centrality of race and racism to the history of this country,” Wise says in the film, “and how dangerous and damaging it is when white people, like me, are blind to racial inequality and our own privileges.”

What follows is READ MORE

Companies that got rich from Slavery

History has consistently shown that slavery has diminished the quality of life for African Americans and simultaneously enhanced the quality of life for White Americans. From institutionalized racism to blocked social and economic opportunities, African Americans are often excluded of African Americans.

Apologies cannot compensate an entire race of people for all of the social and economic ills they face as a result of their enslavement. They cannot address the residual effects of slavery. They cannot provide job opportunities to a race of people who are experiencing high unemployment rates. Apologies without action from the very systems they helped to create. Had it not been for slave labor, many corporations would not be where they are today and for these companies to acknowledge their involvement in slavery and then simply say ‘Oh, I’m sorry”, is to downplay their role in perpetuating the degradation are nothing more than a futile attempt to correct a wrong by pacifying the wronged. Instead of apologies, these companies could give back to the African American community by donating to HBCUs, investing in minority businesses, offering more minority scholarships, or launching initiatives to increase their number of minority employees. These companies include:

 1. New York Life

New York life found that its predecessor (Nautilus Insurance Company) sold slaveholder policies during the mid-1800s.

2. Tiffany and Co.

Tiffany and Co. was originally financed with profits from a Connecticut cotton mill. The mill operated from cotton picked by slaves.

3. Aetna

Aetna insured the lives of slaves during the 1850′s and reimbursed slave owners when their slaves died.

4. Brooks Brothers

The suit retailer started their company in the 1800s by selling clothes for slaves to slave traders.

5.  Read more?  Click here for the original post on KUSHITE KINGDOM

 

Stuff White People Probably Shouldn’t Say

See on Scoop.itWhite’s Only

via @JulianAbagond “Here are some things White Americans say that seem odd, offensive, arrogant, ignorant and so on. Maybe it is just me. Commenters can offer their own opinions and examples. Those with links have pos…

See on abagond.wordpress.com

5 Things Not To Do When Accused Of Racism by @NakagawaScot

Author:  Scot Nakagawa

“Okay, I know this subject has been beat to death but I need to go there one more time. Why? Because Paula Deen’s crying, pleading, borderline belligerentI is what I is, and I’m not changing play for forgiveness mirrors the way that too many white people react to accusations of racism. And that reaction is no small thing. It’s one of the obstacles to ending interpersonal racism which, as we know, is the justification for institutional racism and the perpetuation of racial inequality.

scolding

So, for white people who want to be good allies, here are five things not to do when accused of racism:

  1. Cry. By crying, you make the problem all about you. You know, like you’re such a good and sensitive person that no one was hurt by your racism more than you were. Nice try, but in order to believe that, we first have to minimize the damage that’s done by racism, and that kind of undermines the whole idea that you’re genuinely sorry about anything except howyou’re being treated as a result of your racist behavior.
  2. Trot out your (insert racial minority group here) friends. This is an all too common way of deflecting the accusation without just admitting to the racist act. And, it’s bound to backfire, because instead of being an excuse, it only demonstrates your racism by reducing your friend to her/his race and worse, into an object, specifically a shield, to protect you from having to admit to racism.
  3. Blame your age or upbringing. If your age is the problem, it implicates everyone else in your age group in your act of racism, and that’s not a fair thing to do to them in order to protect you. It also blames your racist act on your mother, your father, your teachers, the social climate in the town you grew up in, and every other person or condition that influenced you except, of course, you, the person who had a choice. As history shows us, not everyone was a racist at any time in our history. In every age, every person had and continues to have the ability to choose against racism.
  4. Justify racist acts in certain circumstances as in, it’s okay to turn into a racist if someone is holding a gun to your head. If you manage to hold in your racism when you’re at your best, but react to fear or anger by immediately turning to racism, you’re a racist. In fact, fear and anger are at the very heart of racism.

But, while avoiding the four things listed above will probably keep you out of trouble, they don’t actually address your racism. So, if you’re truly just an accidental racist who sincerely wants to make amends, simply admit to it, take what you have coming to you, learn from it, and do something to make a positive difference.

And that brings me to the 5th thing you ought not do when accused of racism.Dodge. Because what distinguishes the accidental racist from an intentional one is the willingness to simply own up to your accidents and make amends.”

Visit ChangeLab for Original Article

Race Beyond Black and White: Four Reasons to Move Beyond the Racial Binary

Image  by Scot Nakagawa

Re-blogged from: ChangeLab

“…Too often, the history of race and rights in this country is a story told only in terms of black and white, as though the rest of us aren’t part of the plot. Getting some national coverage of an Asian American civil rights story was gratifying. It felt like a little bit of a victory.

But then the TV coverage of the 50th Anniversary March started airing and victory fell to a sense of defeat. Even in the face of rapidly changing U.S. racial demographics, driven in large part by Asian and Latino immigration, the story of race on television is still mainly just black and white.

Now, don’t get me wrong. I believe anti-black racism is the fulcrum of white supremacy. Failing to recognize the pivotal role anti-black racism plays in driving racism more generally in this country is a mistake. But to focus on the experience of black and white people to the exclusion of almost everyone else? That’s both historically inaccurate and politically dangerous.

With that in mind, here are four reasons to move beyond the black-white racial binary:

1. Ignorance of our multi-racial history is the enemy of civil rights.

Here’s an example. In the 1990s, the evangelical right rose to power in part through exploiting widespread homophobia. But, while they appeared to be narrowly targeting LGBT people, they were  using those attacks on LGBT rights to simultaneously talk about civil rights more generally. They did so by contrasting LGBT people with blacks who they said have a “legitimate” claim to civil rights because, they argued, blacks were able to pass a litmus test of suffering and morality without which civil rights cannot be conferred. Therefore, civil rights are special rights.

The success of that argument relied upon the widespread belief among what we nowadays refer to as “low-information voters,” that civil rights are blackrights, not American rights that have historically been withheld from black people. Right wingers exploited this confusion and doubled down on it, inciting anti-black racism by claiming these (black) rights were being taken too far by a civil rights lobby LGBT people wanted a piece of because it had captured control of Congress.

2. We are all profiled differently by race, but all of the different ways in which we are profiled serve the same racial hierarchy.

For instance, in the 1960s, just as the civil rights movement was cresting and black urban uprisings were dominating the news cycle, news stories appeared profiling Asian Americans as a model minority. That profile, which privileged Asians as a super-minority that was “out-whiting the whites,” claimed that Asians in the U.S. had managed to climb to success not through protest nor by way of “riots,” but through hard work and quiet cooperation with the powers that be.

This story of Asian success begged the question, if Asian Americans can do it, why can’t black people? The media provided the answer: blacks aren’t succeeding because they’re a “problem minority.” Ever since, the model minority myth has been used as a lever of racial injustice on the fulcrum of anti-black racism.

3. Race is central to the struggle over citizenship in America.

The contest over voting rights, for instance, is a fight about citizenship rights, who has them, and who gets to decide in the matter just as much as is the question of the right to citizenship of new immigrants, including those without documents. At the center of these fights is a struggle over nationality, power, and control that revolves around race.

We will never resolve these questions until we are able to grapple broadly with the issue of race and citizenship as regards all people of color. Until then, we are all just fighting different battles in the same war, but without the common cause necessary to build a winning coalition.

4. In order to achieve racial equity, we need to complicate our understanding of race. The black-white racial binary is as much a part of the fiction of race in America as dubious science about brain size and intelligence. The truth may not, by itself, set us free, but it might at least get us headed in that direction. As we head toward a “majority-minority” future, we’d do well to acknowledge the complexity of the story of race in America. Just ignoring it might be good for ratings, but it won’t make it go away.”

Can We See Through Race?

See on Scoop.itWhite’s Only

The book Seeing Through Race: A Reinterpretation of Civil Rights Photography, by Martin A. Berger explores the dual role of Civil Rights Movement photojourn

See on www.changelabinfo.com

Racism Isn’t About You

Originally posted on Leftcheek deuce:

My student, R, called me a racist! He let all the teachers on my floor know that he was sure that I, his English teacher, was a racist too. But Ms. B and Ms. G wouldn’t hear it. “He can’t be racist. Dye is Puerto Rican just like you are! Minorities can’t be racist against other minorities.” My colleagues were protecting me for a variety of reasons, but even I didn’t buy that defense then.

I knew that R was calling me a racist partly because it’s the Great Grenade, and R was very astute at setting off. And it works. It made me feel horrible; there are few who don’t feel particularly and personally targeted at the slightest hint of the word. But he wasn’t without validity. R was often an angry young man, but he didn’t just get furious for no reason at all. He may have been…

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South Africa: ‘What are we doing about this government that is killing us?’

See on Scoop.itCulturally Teaching

South Africa: ‘What are we doing about this government that is killing us?’Socialist PartyThe police killed at least 140 people on 16-17 June 1976, mostly in Soweto, and 600 more as they tried to put down the year-long revolt.

See on www.socialistparty.org.uk

2013 in review

The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2013 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

A New York City subway train holds 1,200 people. This blog was viewed about 4,600 times in 2013. If it were a NYC subway train, it would take about 4 trips to carry that many people.

Click here to see the complete report.